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With open-door policies for all countries in the world and in the integration process of the
globalization, there have been more and more foreign investors to Vietnam. This creates chances
for economic development. Therefore, learning English is quite essential, especially learning
terms in international business contracts. However, how to use terms is not easy for every
learner. Students must be requested to acquire a certain level of English and also knowledge in
the field. Thus, the study of the international business contract is an urgent need.
Although English is not an official language in many countries, it is the language most often
taught as a foreign or second language. Around the world, there are an estimated 1 billion people
learning English. There are many reasons why learning English has seen exponential growth in
recent years. In fact, English has become the “global language” of business, politics,
international relations, culture, and entertainment.
Moreover, translation has become a profession. More and more people have been choosing
translation as their life. It has been discovered that translation is a wonder but such a big
challenge for all the learners of foreign language. Translation of terms and conditions in English
business contract is certainly a huge challenge for beginners who want to pursue their own
translation career. A number of Vietnamese learners get trouble in translating terms and
conditions in international business contracts. The work has been not easy at all because the
learners always have to deal with non-equivalence as well as other difficulties in translating.
Hence, to be successful in the job, it is very necessary to accumulate both linguistic and cultural
knowledge in native language as well as foreign languages.

a_study_on_translation_of_delivery_terms_in_international

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
——————————-
ISO 9001 : 2008
KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP
NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ
HẢI PHÒNG – 2010
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
GRADUATION PAPER
A STUDY ON TRANSLATION OF DELIVERY
TERMS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
CONTRACTS
By:
DƯƠNG THỊ HIỀN
Class:
NA 1002
Supervisor:
NGUYỄN THỊ PHƯƠNG THU, M.A
HAI PHONG – 2010
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
Sinh viên: ……………………………………………………Mã số:……………………….
Lớp: ………………………..Ngành:…………………………………………………………..
Tên đề tài: …………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………..
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
..
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2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
..
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..
..
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..
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3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp.
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CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày 12 tháng 04 năm 2010
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày 10 tháng 07 năm 2010
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2010
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt nghiệp:
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2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra trong
nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số liệu):
..
..
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..
..
..
..
..
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3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ):
..
..
..
Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. năm 2010
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký)
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài liệu,
số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………. tháng……… năm 2010
Người chấm phản biện
Acknowledgements
During the process of doing this graduation paper, I have received many
necessary assistances, precious ideas and timely encouragements from my
teachers, family and friends.
First of all, I wish to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor – Mrs.
Nguyen Thi Phuong Thu, MA of Foreign Language Department, who has always
been willing to give me valuable advices and suggestions in order that I can
complete successfully this study.
My sincere thanks are also sent to the teachers in the English Department of
HaiPhong Private University for their useful lessons and whole-hearted advices
during four years studying here.
Last but not least, I would like to give heartfelt thanks to my family, friends
who studied at Foreign Trade University for all their helps, encouragements and
supports.
Hai phong, June 2010
Duong Thi Hien
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgements
Part I: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale of the study ………………………………………………………………………… 1
2. Aims of the study ……………………………………………………………………………… 2
3. Scope of the study ………………………………………………………………………………. 2
4. Method of the study …………………………………………………………………………….. 2
5. Design of the study ……………………………………………………………………………… 3
Part II: DEVELOPMENT
Chapter one: Theoretical Background
1. Translation theory ………………………………………………………………………………. 4
1.1 Definitions of translation …………………………………………………………………. 4
1.2 Translation types ……………………………………………………………………………. 5
1.3 Translation equivalence ………………………………………………………………….. 7
1.3.1 Definition of translation equivalence ………………………………………… 7
1.3.2 Types of equivalence in translation ………………………………………….. 8
2. Translation of ESP
2.1 Definition of ESP …………………………………………………………………………. 9
2.2 Type of ESP ………………………………………………………………………………. 10
2.3 Delivery terms in ESP translation …………………………………………………. 11
Chapter two: General knowledge on an international business contract
1. An overview on an international business contract …………………………… 12
1.1 Definition of an international business contract …………………………….. 12
1.2 The main content of an international business contract ……………………. 12
1.2.1 The representation ……………………………………………………………… 12
1.2.1.1 Name of contract ……………………………………………………. 12
1.2.1.2 Contract Number …………………………………………………….. 12
1.2.1.3 Place and signing date of contract …………………………….. 13
1.2.1.4 Name and address of each party ……………………………….. 13
1.2.1.5 Definition of terms ………………………………………………….. 13
1.2.1.6 The legal basic of contract ……………………………………….. 14
1.2.2 Terms and conditions …………………………………………………………………….. 14
1.2.2.1 Commercial terms …………………………………………………… 14
1.2.2.2 Financial terms ……………………………………………………….. 15
1.2.2.3 Delivery terms ………………………………………………………… 17
1.2.2.4 Legal terms …………………………………………………………….. 18
2. Delivery terms ………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
2.1 The main content of delivery terms ……………………………………………….. 19
2.1.1 Time of delivery …………………………………………………………………. 20
2.1.2 Place of delivery ………………………………………………………………… 20
2.1.3 The delivery method …………………………………………………………… 20
2.1.4 Notice of delivery ………………………………………………………………. 21
2.2 Basic delivery terms …………………………………………………………………… 21
2.2.1 Purpose of Basic delivery terms……………………………………………. 21
2.2.2 Incoterms 2000 …………………………………………………………………… 22
Chapter three: A study on the translation of delivery terms in international
business contracts .
1. Translation of delivery terms in some international business contracts into
Vietnamese ……………………………………………………………………………………… 24
1.1 Contract No.PN-DV-070928 ……………………………………………………….. 24
1.2 Contract No.0909-02 …………………………………………………………………… 31
1.3 Contract No.S01161.000 ……………………………………………………………….. 34
2. The language of delivery terms in international business contracts …….. 40
Chapter four: Some difficulties that Vietnamese learners encounter when
translating delivery terms in business contracts and some suggested solutions.
1. Difficulties…………… …………………………………………………………………………… 43
2. Solutions …………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
Part III: CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………….. 47
References ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49
PART I: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale of study
With open-door policies for all countries in the world and in the integration process of the
globalization, there have been more and more foreign investors to Vietnam. This creates chances
for economic development. Therefore, learning English is quite essential, especially learning
terms in international business contracts. However, how to use terms is not easy for every
learner. Students must be requested to acquire a certain level of English and also knowledge in
the field. Thus, the study of the international business contract is an urgent need.
Although English is not an official language in many countries, it is the language most often
taught as a foreign or second language. Around the world, there are an estimated 1 billion people
learning English. There are many reasons why learning English has seen exponential growth in
recent years. In fact, English has become the “global language” of business, politics,
international relations, culture, and entertainment.
Moreover, translation has become a profession. More and more people have been choosing
translation as their life. It has been discovered that translation is a wonder but such a big
challenge for all the learners of foreign language. Translation of terms and conditions in English
business contract is certainly a huge challenge for beginners who want to pursue their own
translation career. A number of Vietnamese learners get trouble in translating terms and
conditions in international business contracts. The work has been not easy at all because the
learners always have to deal with non-equivalence as well as other difficulties in translating.
Hence, to be successful in the job, it is very necessary to accumulate both linguistic and cultural
knowledge in native language as well as foreign languages.
Finally, I am also interested in translation skill, especially in translation of terms and conditions
in international business contracts. It is the main reason inspiring me to carry out this research.
More importantly, studying this theme offers me a chance to have thorough understanding about
techniques of translation.
2. Aims of the study
The study on translation of terms and conditions in an international business contract figured out
an overview on translation strategies and procedures commonly employed in the translation of
terms in international business contracts.
In details, my Graduation Paper aims at:
1. A brief view of translation, an international business contract and delivery
terms.
2. Techniques necessary for better translation of delivery terms in business
contracts.
3. An analysis of the delivery terms in authentic business contracts.
3. Scope of the study
Nowadays, when the society and the world economy quickly develop, international
trade has become more and more popular to the human development. Therefore,
communication among companies and many other business organizations
worldwide is emerged as an urgent demand. The terms used in business contracts
would require a great amount of effort and time to study. However, due to the
limitation of time and knowledge, I only give an analysis on delivery terms in
international business contracts.
4. Method of the study
This graduation paper is carried out with a view to helping learners enlarge their vocabulary and
have general understanding about translation and translation of delivery terms in international
business contracts. My research paper mostly bases on the collection from reference books, the
dictionaries of international business and internet. Being a student of foreign language
department, after years of learning English, studying translation, I have been equipped with
many skills or techniques for translation: data collection, data analysis, comparative and
contrastive analysis which would be used to carry out this graduation paper.
5. Design of the study
My graduation paper is divided into three parts, in which the second, naturally, is the most
important part.
Part one is the Introduction in which Reason of the study, Aims of the study, Scope of the study,
Method of the study, Design of the study are presented.
Part two is the Development that includes 3 chapters:
Chapter one is Theoretical background.
Chapter two is General knowledge on an international business contract.
Chapter three is a Study on translation of delivery terms in
an international business contract.
Chapter four is some difficulties that Vietnamese learners encounter when translate
delivery terms in business contracts and some suggested solutions.
Part three is the Conclusion.
PART II: DEVELOPMENT
Chapter one: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
1. Translation theory
1.1. Definitions of translation
Translation typically has been used to transfer from written or spoken SL (source language) texts
to equivalent written or spoken TL (target language) texts. In general, the purpose of translation
is to reproduce various kinds of texts including religious, literary, scientific, and philosophical
texts in another language and thus making them available to wider readers.
It is considered as an indispensable part such fields as literature, culture but also commercial
advertisement, popular entertainment, public administration, international diplomacy, scientific
research publication, judiciary procedure, immigration and education. There are various concepts
of translation basing on the individual views.
 Translation is the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language (the
source text) and the production, in another language of a equivalent text (the
target text) that communicates the same message.
(Wikipedia)
 Translation is made possible by an equivalent of thought that lies behind its
different verbal expressions.
(Savory, 1968)
 Translation is to be understood as the process whereby a message expressed
in a specific source language is linguistically transformed in order to be
understood by readers of the target language.
(Houbert, 1998:1)
 Translation is the transformation of a text originally in one language into an
equivalent in the content of the message and the formal features and the
roles of the original.
(Bell,1991)
 Translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the
way that author intended the text.
(Newmark, 1988)
 Translation consists of reproducing in the receptor language the closest
natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning
and secondly in terms of style.
(Nida, 1984:83)
1.2. Translation types
The translation types are often categorized by the number of areas of specialization. Each
specialization has its own strategies and difficulties. Some translation types are listed as
following:
 Word –for- word translation
This is often demonstrated as interlinear translation, with the TL immediately below the SL
words. The SL word-order is preserved and the words translated singly by their most common
meaning, out of context. The SL word order is preserved and the words are translated by their
most common meanings. The main use of this method is either to understand the mechanics of
the source of the source language or to construe a difficult text as pre-translation process.
 Literal translation
Literal translation is a broader form of translation, each SL word has a corresponding TL word,
but their primary meanings may differ. The SL grammatical constructions are converted to their
nearest TL equivalent but the lexical items are again translated out of the context.
Literal translation is considered the basic translation step, both in communicative and semantic
translation, in that translation starts from there. As pre-translation process, it indicates problems
to be solved.
 Faithful translation
It attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraint of
the TL grammatical structures. It transfers cultural words and preserves the degree of
grammatical and lexical deviation from SL forms. It attempts to be completely faithful to the
intentions and the text-realization of the SL writer.
 Semantic Translation
It differs from faithful translation only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic
value of the SL text, compromising on meaning where appropriate so that no assonance, word
play or repetition jars in the finished version. It does not rely on cultural equivalence and makes
very small concessions to the readership. The distinction between “faithful” and “semantic”
translation is that the first is uncompromising and dogmatic, while the second is more flexibility;
admits the creative exception to 100% fidelity and allows for the translator‟s intuitive with the
original.
 Free translation
Free translation mean the translation isn‟t close to the original, but the translator just transmits
meanings of the SL in his own words. It reproduces the matter without the manner, or the content
without the form of original. Usually it is a paraphrase much longer than the original. Therefore,
the text in TL sounds more natural. On the contrary, translating is too casual to understand the
original because of its freedom.
 Idiomatic Translation
Idiomatic translation is used for colloquialism and idioms whose literalism is the translation by
which the translator does not transfer the literalism of the original, uses the translation of
colloquialism and idioms.
 Communicative translation
It attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such way that both language
and content are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership.”But even here the
translator still has to respect and work on the form of the source language text as the only
materia

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