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During the process of completing this graduation paper, I have
received a lot of help, guidance, and encouragement from many people.
First of all, I would like to express my deepest thank to my supervisor
Mrs. Nguyen Thi Huyen – the lecturer of the Department of Fofeign
Language of Hai Phong Private University, for her enthusiastic guidance,
helpful suggestion and encouragement in writing of this report.
I would also like to send my thanks to all teachers of Foreign
Language Department for their helpings, contributions and teachings all the
time when I am at Hai Phong Private University.

acknowledgements

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1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
During the process of completing this graduation paper, I have
received a lot of help, guidance, and encouragement from many people.
First of all, I would like to express my deepest thank to my supervisor
Mrs. Nguyen Thi Huyen – the lecturer of the Department of Fofeign
Language of Hai Phong Private University, for her enthusiastic guidance,
helpful suggestion and encouragement in writing of this report.
I would also like to send my thanks to all teachers of Foreign
Language Department for their helpings, contributions and teachings all the
time when I am at Hai Phong Private University.
Finally, I would like to show my gratitude toward my family, my
thanks to my friends who are always beside me to support and encourage
me to finish my graduation paper.
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgements
Part one: INTRODUCTION
1.Rationale. 1
2.Design of the study 2
3.Scope of the study 3
4.Aims of the study 3
Part two: DEVELOPMENT
Chapter I: The theoretical background of the study
1.1: -ing as morpheme 5
1.2: The formation of -ing participle 5
1.3: Concepts of the English -ing participle 7
1.3.1: Participle 7
1.3.2: -Ing participle 8
1.4: Different views of the English -ing participle 8
1.4.1: The tranditional theory of -ing participle 8
1.4.2: The modern theory of -ing participle 9
1.5: Finite and non-finite verb phrases compared 12
Chapter II: Uses of the English -ing participle
2.1: -Ing participle in the finite verb clause 14
2.1.1: Present progressive 14
2.1.2: Past progressive 19
2.1.3: Present perfect progressive 23
2.1.4: Past perfect progressive 26
2.2: The -ing participle as a non-finite clause 29
2.2.1: Nominal -ing clause 30
2.2.1.1: As subject 30
2.2.1.2: As direct object 32
3
2.2.1.3: As subject complement 35
2.2.1.4: As appositive 36
2.2.1.5: As prepositional complement 36
2.2.1.6: As adjectival complement 40
2.2.2: Adverbial -ing clause 40
2.2.2.1: As clause of time 41
2.2.2.2: As clause of reason or cause 44
2.2.2.3: As clause of circumstance 46
2.2.2.4: As clause of condition and concession 47
2.2.2.5: As clause of preference 48
2.2.2.6: As clause of manner 49
2.2.3: Comment -ing clause 49
2.2.4: The -ing clause as postmodification in a complex noun phrase 51
2.2.5: The -ing participle as premodification in a complex noun phrase 53
2.2.6: The -ing clause as extraposed subject 54
2.2.7: The -ing clause in pseudo-cleft sentences 55
2.2.8: The -ing clause in existential sentences 56
2.2.9: The -ing participle as compared with the “to-infinitive” 57
2.2.9.1: Verbs taking infinitive or -ing form without change of meaning 57
2.2.9.2: Verbs taking infinitive and -ing participle with some change in
meaning 58
Chapter III: Some errors when using -ing participle in the finite and
non-finite clause and suggested types of exercises
3.1: Some errors when using -ing participle in the finite clause 61
3.1.1: Some samples of exercises 65
3.2: Errors when using -ing participle in the non-finite clause 69
3.2.1: Suggested types of exercises 71
Part three: CONCLUSION
1. Review of the study 76
2. Some suggestions for preparing materials, and further research 77
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PART ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.RATIONALE
We can in no way deny the importance of English in Viet Nam at
present. The desire to learn English is immense and apparently insatiable
due to the current economic development. English is now a top requirement
of those who are seeking good jobs. In our country, English is taught from
primary schools to universities, in both private enterprises and state offices.
No language is more widely studied or used as a foreign language than
English in Viet Nam at the moment. Consequently, the teaching methods
and learning strategies are of the utmost interest of the Vietnamese
methodologists and pedagogists of English. In order to assist the teaching
and learning English to come to a success, an attempt has been made to
present, classify and describe, to the possible degree, the English-ing
participle systematically and scientifically, at the same time, in contrastive
analysis with Vietnamese equivalent.
Every language has its peculiar problems of grammar for the foreign
learner, and many people would agree that in the English language, the
most trouble problems are concentrated in the area of the finite and non-
finite verb phrase, and include, in particular, questions of the usage of the
English -ing participle.
It can be seen that the V-ing is one of five forms of a certain verb so
the -ing participle, of course is an important part in English grammar from
elementary to advanced level. It appears with high frequency in
communication day by day. Furthermore, no-ing form can be seen in
Vietnamese, consequently, we have to use the other devices to convey the
equivalent meaning so the English -ing participle is not quite simple to
understand and use for Vietnamese learners.
5
In my hope, my study about using ing-participle will help learners not
only to acquire a better knowledge of English but deepen their grasp of the
language. It‟s of great importance to predict difficulties arising from the
differences between the two languages and solve them in the belief that the
result of the study would be of some assistance to Vietnamese learners who
are learning English and to anyone interested in the English language.
In this study the teminology and the concepts are broadly used in
accordance with “Longman English Grammar” by Alexander and “A
Grammar Of English” by Professor Randolph Quirk and others. These are
the valid grammar books which are without doubt the English grammar of
our time.
2. DESIGN OF THE STUDY.
The study is arranged in three parts.
The first part is mainly concerned with the introduction which
includes the rationale, the design, the aims and scope.
The second part with the development, the main part of the study,
there are three chapters: Chapter one will deal with the theoretical
background in which we lay emphasis on dicussing the traditional concepts
and the modern points of view concerning the English -ing participle. The
finite and non-finite verb phrase will be distinguished in the part. Finally
this chapter will, to some extent, raise some theoretical preliminaries about
morphology of English.
The chapter two will be presented with the systematic desciption as
networks of functions of -ing participle. A number of examples will be
described in the chapter. Futhermore, some analysis of structures and
semantic implications of the two languages English and Vietnamese will be
made as well.
The last chapter, chapter three aims at concentrating on some errors
when using -ing participle in finite and non-finite clause and their suggested
solutions.
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And the last comes with part three, the ending part, giving summary
of all information and matter discussed above and some suggestions for
further research.
3. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Evidently, grammar is both fascinating and challenging, and it is, of
course, not very easy to master of foreign language. It is more difficult to
acquire and use it perfectly. English, like Vietnamese and other languages,
is full of problems. Each language has its own characteristic features in
term of phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics.
In the framework of the study I point out the description of the English
-ing participle and some analysis of structure and semantic implications.
In this study, due to the limited time and knowledge, I only pay
attention to dealing with the theoretical background in which I lay emphasis
on discussing the tranditional concepts and the modern points of view
concerning the English -ing participle; pointing out the cases of the English
-ing participle with systematic description as networks of functions and
some analysis of structures and semantic implication. It has been limited to
the English -ing participle in both finite and non-finite verb clause
according to the modern concept.
4. AIMS OF THE STUDY
Every language has its peculiar problems of grammar for the foreign
learner and many people would agree that in the English language, the most
trouble problems are concentrated in the area of the finite and non-finite
verb phrase, and include, in particular, questions of the usage of the English
-ing participle.
It is my hope, therefore, that whatever is new in the study I make will
help learners not only to acquire a better knowledge of English, but deepen
their grasp of the language. Writing this paper I try to:
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– Point out the theoretical background including the traditional
concepts and the modern point of view concerning the English –ing
participle, the finite and non-finite phrase.
– Find out the systematic description as networks of functions of –ing
participle, a number of examples, some analysis of structures and
semantic implications of the English -ing participle.
– Find out some errors when using -ing in finite and non-finite clause.
– Offer some review of the study, some suggestions of materials for
further studies.
8
PART TWO: DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER I: THE THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.1: -Ing as morpheme
As far as we know morphology is the study of the word formation and
word morphemes. Morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in a language
which can be either root morpheme or affixational morpheme. The English
ending -ing is considered as a derivational suffixation. For example, we can
devide “dancing” into two “-dance” and “-ing”. These forms have no
partical resemblance to any other form and, therefore, are morphemes. We
can treat “singing” and “dancing” by saying that each has two morphemes.
The adding of “ing” to a verb forms the progressive tense in case there is
the presence of the verb “tobe” otherwise, the adding of “ing” to a verb can
function as a verbal noun, an active adjective and a complement… with
different grammatical meaning and lexical meaning. This will be mentioned
later in chapter two.
An attempt, however, to deal with morphology in contractive analysis
runs in to difficulties. Vietnamese is typically classified as an isolating
language. Most of words have only one morpheme, consequently, there is
zero-ing in Vietnamese. That is why greatest interest must be taken in
viewing the equivalent meaning of “-ing” in Vietnamese. The students have
actually met many problems when learning the English-ing participle.
1.2: The formation of -ing participle.
Spelling: How to add -ing to a verb
Evidently, there is only one form of verb in Vietnamese while in
English, according to Quirk, normally, English lexical verb has five forms:
the base, the -s form, the past, the -ing participle (V, V-s, V-ed1, V-ing and
V-ed2 respectively).
9
Thus -ing is one of the five forms. The modal auxiliaries are defective
in not having infinitive (to may), -ing participle (maying). The following is
the table of the spelling of -ing participle:
How to add -ing to a verb:
Verds Formation Remarks
1.Most verds Wait – waiting
Teach – teaching
Beat – beating
Catch – catching
Drink – drinking
Enjoy – enjoying
Hurry – hurrying
We can add -ing to most
verds without changing
the spelling of their base
forms
2.Verds that end in -e Hope – hoping
Date – dating
Injure -injuring
Dance – dancing
Write – writing
If the word ends in -e
drop the -e and add -ing
3.Verds that end in a
vowel and a consonant
One-syllable verbs
a,Stop – stopping
Rob – robbing
Beg – begging
Run – running
Sit – sitting
Get – getting
b,Rain – raining
Fool – fooling
Dream – dreaming
Beat – beating
Two- syllable verbs
1vowel -> 2 consonants
2 vowels -> 1 consonant
1
st
syllable stressed ->
one consonant
10
a,Listen – listening
Offer – offering
Open – opening
b,Begin – beginning
Prefer – preferring
Control – controlling
Travel – travelling
2
nd
syllable stressed ->
two cosonants
4.Verbs that end in -y a,Enjoy – enjoying
Pray – praying
Buy – buying
b,Study – stutyding
Try – trying
If -y is preceded by a
vowel, keep the -y
If -y is preceded by a
cosonant. Keep the -y,
adding -ing.
5. Verb that end in -ie Die – dying
Lie – lying
Tie – tying
If the verb end in -ie,
change -ie to y before
adding -ing.
6. Verb that end in two
consonants
Start -starting
Fold – folding
Demand – demanding
If the verb end in two
consonants, just add the
ending –ing.
1.3: Concepts of the English -ing participle
1.3.1: Participle
Richards and others [longman; 1985] define: Participle is a non-finite
verb form which functions as an adjective, and is used in passive sentences
and to form perfect and progessive aspect. There are two participles in
English, the present participle and the past participle.
Hornby [1963] and others: Verbal adjectives qualify noun but retain some
properties of a verb: “hurrying” and “hurried” are the present and the past
participle of “hurry”.
11
1.3.2: -Ing participle
Gergunds and present participles are formed from verbs and always
end in -ing. Therefore words like playing, writing, ect. can function as
gerunds or as participles. The -ing form is usually called a gerund when it
behaves like a noun and a participle when it behaves like an adjective.
However, there are some overlap between these two main functions and it
is difficult (and unnecessary) to make formal distintions. The term-ing form
is used here to cover gerund and participle constructions and the term
“participle” is used in “the sentence” to refer to part of a verb.
– As a gerund, the -ing form often functions in general statements as an
uncountable noun with no article. It can also be replaced by it.
Eg: Dancing is fun. I love it.
Sometimes it functions as a countable noun which can be replaced by it
(singular) or they (plural)
Eg: Dickens often gave readings of his work. They were very popular.
– Present participles are associated with verbs when they refer to action in
progress, eg. in progressive tenses. Participle phrases also commonly stand
for clauses.
Eg: Walking in the park the other day, I saw a bird building a nest
(= I was walking, the bird was building)
According to Richards and others [longman; 1985]: The present participle
is form by adding -ing to a verb base. It functions as an adjective (eg: – a
smiling girl, a self -winding watch); it is used with Be to form the
progressive (eg – It is raining); it occurs in constructions such as let’s go
shopping.
1.4: Different views of the English -ing participle
1.4.1: The traditional theory of -ing participle
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According to most grammarians, the English-ing participle is
considered as the gerund and participle I (the present participle). Some
others treated -ing participle as a single form as the -ing form.
Close [longman; 1975] states that when it is used in conjunction with
Be to express progessive aspect (eg: we are waiting), the -ing form has a
verbal function and is traditionally called a participle. It is a participle in
commonly used contructions like “Let‟s go swimming”, “Come dancing
with us”. It can also function as a noun phrase (NP), in which case it is
tranditionally called the gerund as in:
I like chocolate.
swimming.
– Standing here all day, I see some very strange people.
– Standing here all day make me very tired.
The former “standing” can therefore be called a participle.
The later “standing” can be called a gerund.
Alexander [longman; 1988] when discussing the -ing form remarked:
Gerunds and present participles are formed from verbs and always end in –
ing. Therefore, words like “playing”, “writing”, ect. can function as gerunds
or as participles. The -ing form is usually called a gerund when it behaves
like noun and a participle when it behaves like an adjective. However, there
is some overlap between these two main functions and it is often difficult
(and unnecessary) to make formal distinctions.
The term the -ing form is used here to cover gerund and paticiple
contruction and the term participle is used in the sentence to refer to part of
a verb. In broad terms, the gerund can take the place of a noun, though it
can, like a verb, have an object.
I like coffee Jonh likes planes
swimming flying
flying planes
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The participle can take the place of an adjective.
This is a wide
running
stream
Swan [1980] suggested : the form of a verb ending in- ing (eg: writing,
arguing) is sometimes called (a) the present pariciple and sometimes (b) the
gerund , depending on whether it is used (a) more like a verb or adjective
or (b) more like a noun.
I sat smoking and wondering what to do (present participe)
Smoking is bad for you. (gerund)
In fact, the distinction is not really as simple as this, and some
grammarians prefer to avoid the term participle and gerund. So the -ing
form is used (instead of gerund) for cases where the -ing form is used more
like a noun. The word participle is used for other cases.
The English -ing participle is traditionaly treated as a gerund and a present
participle and considered as a phrase, not a clause.
1.4.2: The modern theory of -ing participle
There have been some different points of view in classifying words
that end in -ing. According to Quirk and others grammarians, word in -ing
are considered as -ing participle. Quirk [longman; 1972] state the words
such as “painting” or “building” in these examples as pure nouns:
We found some paintings.
I like the building very much.
It is certain that the words “paintings” and “building” in the above
examples are the pure nouns since they could be replaced by “pictures” or
“house” . They are thus perfectly regular concrete count nouns, replaced
only to the verb “paint” and “build” by word formation. The such nouns
are referred to “deverbal”.
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Many other words in -ing are abstract mass noun such as “learning”
“explaining”, “dancing”, “shopping”, etc.These words can be formed from
any verb by adding -ing and inserting “of” before the noun phrase:
The painting of Brown
The explaining of the teacher
The girl’s beautiful dancing .
Quirk refers to such forms as verbal nouns. We could not replace these
words by count nouns because they may express the process, the work, or
skill of the activities.
Besides, the deverbal and verbal nouns as the pure or abstract mass
nouns, -ing participle is used in the finite and non-finite clause. Look at the
examples:
– I dislike Brown’s painting his daughter.
– I dislike Brown painting his daughter.
– I watched Brown painting his daughter.
– Brown’s deftly painting his daughter is a delight to watch.
– Painting his daughter, Brown noticed that his hand was shaking.
– The man painting the girl is Brown.
– The silently painting man is Brown.
– He is painting his daughter.
Quirk disregard the dictinction between gerund and participle,
classifying the -ing iterms in the above examples as participles. In the last
sentence, -ing participle is the head of a finite verb phrase. The other -ing
participles are the non-finite clauses. The classification is the scientific way
accepted by many grammarians.
In conclusion, according to two theories (traditional theory and
modern theory) mentioned above, it can be seen that there are some
different points of view in classifying words that end in –ing.
Tranditionally, English grammar distinguishes between the gerund
and participle 1. The distinction between them is ba

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Từ khóa: Acknowledgements

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