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English nowadays is such a common language and it is learned and used everywhere.
English is considered the first language at 28 countries and the second language at many
others such as Singapore, India, Canada, Ireland, and so on. Furthermore, English becomes
an international language which is used worldwide in many fields like Internet, Business,
Education, Communication, Economy, and so on. When you look at the number of people
who speak English and what English is used for, you can realize the importance of English
in life.
Nowadays, Viet Nam economy is developing and opening for all the companies, factories,
corporations and businesses in the world to invest in it. Therefore, teaching and learning
English is quite necessary; especially, English in Investment field because this is the
important field in Vietnam economy. Investment is a new field in Viet Nam integration
process of the globalization. However, people working in Investment field do not have high
standard in English. Thus, a number of Vietnamese learners get trouble in translating
Investment terms, I myself often become confused with terminologies in this field
whenever I meet them. Hence, it is very necessary for me to acquire certain accumulation
of linguistic and cultural knowledge in both native language and foreign languages.
Moreover, I am also interested in translation skills, especially in translation of Investment
terms.

de_tai_a_study_on_english_terms_related_to_investment_docume

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
——————————-
ISO 9001 : 2008
KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP
NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ
HẢI PHÒNG – 2010
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
GRADUATION PAPER
A STUDY ON ENGLISH TERMS RELATED TO
INVESTMENT DOCUMENTS AND VIETNAMESE
EQUIVALENCE
By:
LƯU THỊ THÙY DƯƠNG
Class:
NA1002
Supervisor:
NGUYỄN THỊ PHI NGA, M.A.
HAI PHONG – 2010
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
Sinh viên: ………………………………………………….Mã số:……………………….
Lớp: ……………………..Ngành:…………………………………………………………..
Tên đề tài: …………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt
nghiệp
( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp.
..
..
..
CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày 12 tháng 04 năm 2010
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày 10 tháng 07 năm 2010
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2010
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt
nghiệp:
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra
trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số
liệu):
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ):
..
..
..
Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. năm 2010
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký)
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài
liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………. tháng……… năm 2010
Người chấm phản biện
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
During the process of doing this graduation paper, I have received many
necessary assistances, previous ideas and timely encouragements from my
teachers, family and friends.
First of all, I wish to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor – Mrs
Nguyen Thi Phi Nga, MA of Foreign Language Department, who has always
been willing to give me valuable advices and suggestions in order that I can
complete successfully this study.
My sincere thanks are also sent to the teachers in the English Department of
Hai Phong Private University for their useful lessons and whole-hearted
advices during four years studying here.
Last but not least, I would like to give heartfelt thanks to my family, my
friends and the staffs in Department of Planning and Investment who I never
have enough words to express my great gratitude for all their helps,
encouragements and supports.
Hai Phong, June 2010
Student
Luu Thi Thuy Duong
TABLE OF CONTENT
Acknowledgement
Table of content
PART I: INTRODUCTION
1
1. Rationale of the study..
2. Aims of the study
3. Scope of the study…
4. Method of the study..
5. Design of the study
PART II: DEVELOPMENT..
Chapter 1: Theoretical Background
1. Translation theory..
1.1. Definition of translation
1.2. Translation types.
1.3. Translation equivalence
1.4. Types of equivalence…
1.5. Case of non-equivalence..
2. Translation of English for specific purposes (ESP)
2.1. Definitions of ESP..
2.2. Types of ESP..
2.3. Investment ESP translation
2.3.1. Definitions of technical translation.
2.3.2. Translation of the area of Investment terms
2.4. Terms in Investment field
2.4.1. What is term? ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………
2.4.2. The characteristic of term…
2.4.3. Investment terms
Chapter 2: An investigation of Investment English terms and their
Vietnamese equivalence
1.Collection of English Investment terms and Vietnamese
equivalence
1.1. Single terms.
1.2. Compound terms.
1.3. Phrases
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
6
9
10
11
11
11
13
15
15
16
16
16
17
17
19
19
22
25
1.4. Abbreviation.
2. Strategies applied to translation of English Investment terms into
Vietnamese.
2.1. The strategies applied to the translation of single terms
2.1.1. Recognize translation..
2.1.2. Translation by paraphrase using unrelated words..
2.1.3. Single terms are formed by the help of prefixes……
2.1.4. Single terms are formed by the help of suffixes..
2.2. The strategies applied to the translation of compound terms
2.2.1. Shift or transposition of translation
2.2.2. Rank-shift translation.
2.3. Strategies applied to the translation of phrases.
2.3.1. Reduction translation..
2.3.2. Expansion translation.
2.4. Translation of abbreviations by using a loan word
Chapter 3: Main Finding
1. The difficulties in translating some Investment terms
2. Some suggestions in translating Investment terms
PART III: CONCLUSION
REFERENCES.
26
27
27
28
30
31
34
36
37
41
43
43
44
47
51
52
54
56
ABBREVIATIONS
Adj Adjective
ESP English for Specific Purposes
N Noun
SL Source language
ST Source text
TL Target language
TT Target text
V Verb
Part I: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale of the study
English nowadays is such a common language and it is learned and used everywhere.
English is considered the first language at 28 countries and the second language at many
others such as Singapore, India, Canada, Ireland, and so on. Furthermore, English becomes
an international language which is used worldwide in many fields like Internet, Business,
Education, Communication, Economy, and so on. When you look at the number of people
who speak English and what English is used for, you can realize the importance of English
in life.
Nowadays, Viet Nam economy is developing and opening for all the companies, factories,
corporations and businesses in the world to invest in it. Therefore, teaching and learning
English is quite necessary; especially, English in Investment field because this is the
important field in Vietnam economy. Investment is a new field in Viet Nam integration
process of the globalization. However, people working in Investment field do not have high
standard in English. Thus, a number of Vietnamese learners get trouble in translating
Investment terms, I myself often become confused with terminologies in this field
whenever I meet them. Hence, it is very necessary for me to acquire certain accumulation
of linguistic and cultural knowledge in both native language and foreign languages.
Moreover, I am also interested in translation skills, especially in translation of Investment
terms. That is the reason why I decide to carry out this research. More importantly,
studying this theme offers me a chance to have thorough understanding about English
specific purpose as well as improve knowledge about Investment field.
2. Aims of the study
I carry out the study on English terms related to Investment documents to figure out an
overview on translation and translation strategies in general and translation of Investment
terms in particular.
In details, the study is aimed at:
 Understanding thoroughly translation theory and translation of English specific purpose
 Collecting and presenting common English terms relating to Investment Documents and
their Vietnamese equivalents
 Giving some suggestions to readers who pay attention to translation skill and Investment
field
I hope that this study can help readers to understand about translation strategies in general
and translation of Investment terms in particular, help them translate it effectively.
3. Scope of the study
The terms used in Investment field would require a great amount of effort and time to
study. However, due to limitation of time and my knowledge, my study could not cover all
the aspect of this theme. I only focus the study on translation and translation strategies in
general, and translation of English terms relating to Investment documents. But hopefully
these will partly help readers have the general knowledge and understanding about these
terms which are used in Investment field.
4. Method of the study
To carry out and complete successfully this research, I used the following methods:
 Reading translation books to understand theoretical background.
 Asking my supervisors, teachers and friends
 Collecting documents and information related to Investment field from Internet,
TV, references books, newspapers, Dictionary and so on.
5. Design of the study
My graduation paper includes three main parts:
 Part I, INTRODUCTION includes reason of the study, aims of the study, scope of the
study, method of the study, design of the study.
 Part II, DEVELOPMENT is the main part of the research paper and it is divided into 3
chapters:
Chapter I is THEORETICAL BACKGROUND providing the definition, type and
strategies of translation in general and ESP translation in general and ESP in Investment
terms.
Chapter II is AN INVESTIGATION OF ENGLISH TERMS RELATING TO
INVESTMENT DOCUMENTS AND VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENCE
Chapter III is the MAIN FINDING of my research.
 Part III is CONCLUSION with the summary of what has been given in the previous parts
and Reference.
Part II: DEVELOPMENT
Chapter I: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
1. Translation theory
1.1 Definitions of translation:
There are many definitions of translation all over the world. Following is some typical
definitions :
The first definition is “Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language
by equivalent textual material in another language”
_Catford (1965: 20)_
Very much similar to this definition is “Translation is made possible by an equivalent of
thought that lies behind its different verbal expressions”
_Savory (1968: 37)_
Next, the process of translating as follows.
“Translating consists of reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent
of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.”
_Nida and Taber (1959: 19)_
In Translation: Applications and Research, defines translation as:
“The general term referring to the transfer of thoughts and ideas from one language
(source) to another (target), whether the languages are in written or oral form; whether the
languages have established orthographies or do not have such standardization or whether
one or both languages is based on signs, as with sign languages of the deaf”
_ Brislin (1976: 1)_
Identical with the above definition is “Translation is a process of finding a TL equivalent
for an SL utterance”
_ Pinhhuck (1977: 38)_
In 1980, McGuire defined translation as “Translation involves the rendering of a source
language (SL) text into the target language (TL) so as to ensure that the surface meaning of
the two will be approximately similar and the structure of the SL will be preserved as
closely as possible, but not so closely that the TL structure will be seriously distorted”
_McGuire (1980: 2)_
Some scholars defined translation as an art / craft:
“Translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or
statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language”
_Newmark (1981: 7)_
Wills defines translation more or less similarly as follows.
“Translation is a transfer process which aims at the transformation of a written SL text into
an optimally equivalent TL text, and which requires the syntactic, the semantic and the
pragmatic understanding and analytical processing of the SL”
_Wills in Noss (1982: 3)_
According to Bell:
“Translation is the transformation of a text originally in one language into an equivalent
text in a different language retaining, as far as possible, the content of the message and the
formal features and functional roles of the original text”
_Bell (1991: xv)_
“Translation, as process of conveying messages across the linguistic and cultural barriers,
is an eminently communicative activity, one whose use could be well considered in a wider
range of teaching situation than may currently be the case”
_Tudor, cited in Duff (1989: 5)_
Although these definitions are different in expression, they share common features about
finding the closest equivalence in meaning by the choice of appreciate target language’s
lexical and grammatical structures, communication situation, and cultural context. Some
sort of movement from one language to another depends on translation types that will be
show in the next part.
1.2 Translation types:
There are some translation types as following:
SL Emphasis
Word-for-word translation
Literal translation
Faithful translation
Semantic translation
TL Emphasis
Adaptation
Free translation
Idiomatic translation
Communicative translation
a)Word- for- word translation: In which the SL word order is preserved and the words
translated singly by their most common meanings. Cultural words are translated literally.
The main use of this method is either to understand the mechanics of the source language
or to construe a difficult text as pre-translation process
Example: This house was built by my grandfather.
Căn nhà này được xây bởi ông nội tôi
b)Literal translation: This is a broader form of translation, each SL word has a
corresponding TL word, but their primary meaning may differ. The SL grammatical forms
are converted to their nearest target language equivalents. However, the lexical words are
again translated out of context. Literal translation is considered the basic translation step,
both in communication and semantic translation, in that translation starts from there. As
pre-translation process, it indicates problems to be solved.
Example: My sister put all her whole savings to buy this car
Chị gái tôi đã dùng toàn bộ số tiền tiết kiệm để mua chiếc xe này.
c)Faithful translation: This method tries to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of
the original within the constraint of the TL grammatical structures. It transfers cultural
words and preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical deviation from SL norms. It
attempts to be completely faithful to the intentions and the text-realization of the SL writer
Example: Sông Hương
Faithful translation: The Perfume River
d)Semantic translation: It differs from faithful translation only in as far as it must take
more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, compromising on meaning where
appropriate so that no assonance, word play, or repetition jars in the finished version.
Example: Today the Vietnamese are, almost no exception, extremely friendly to Western
visitors
Ngày nay, người Việt Nam đều rất thân thiện với các khách du lị ch nước ngoài.
(Text book for Translation 1-Haiphong private university)
e)Free translation: This method of translation produces the translated text without the
style, form, or content of the original text.
Example:
“On the bright moonlit nights, standing on the bridge you can see myriads of stars
reflecting on the blue water. The wind breeze rising from the river caresses your lung with
fragrance”
“Đứng trên cầu vào những đêm trăng sáng bạn sẽ được thỏa sức nhìn ngắm hằng hà sa số
những vì sao lấp lánh soi mình xuống làn nước trong xanh. Ngọn gió nhẹ nhàng mát dị u
đưa từ ngoài sông vào mơn trớn vuốt ve da thị t bạn, làm căng lồng ngực bạn bằng hương
thơm êm dị u”.
f)Adaptation: Adaptation refers to that type of translation which is used mainly for plays
and poems. The text is rewritten considering the source language culture which is
converted to the target language culture where the characters, themes, plots are usually
preserved
Example:
Thà một phút huy hoàng rồi chợt tắt
Còn hơn buồn le lói suốt trăm năm
(Xuân Diệu)
It would rather the victorious brightness
In an only moment the centenary twinkle
g)Idiomatic translation: It translates the message of the original text but tends to distort
the original meaning at times by preferring colloquialisms and idioms.
Example: Candle in the wind
Đèn khoe đèn tỏ hơn trăng
Đèn ra trước gió còn chăng hỡi đèn
h)Communicative translation: This method displays the exact contextual meaning of the
original text in a manner where both content and language are easily acceptable and
comprehensible to the readers.
Example: Hello! How are you?
Ê, lâu lắm không gặp, dạo này bạn thế nào?
1.3 Translation equivalence:
According to Vanessa Leonardo “Equivalence can be said to be the central issue in
translation although its definition, relevance, and applicability within the field of translation
theory have caused heated controversy, and many different theories of the concept of
equivalence have been elaborated within this field in the past fifty years.”
Following are some other definitions of translation equivalence:
 Equivalence-oriented translation is a procedure which replicates the same situation
as in the original, whilst using completely different wording.
_Vinay and Darbelnet_
 Translation equivalence exists between forms in a source language and a target
language if their meaning matches. In other words, translation equivalence should
answer the question “What do the speakers of this language actually say to express
the desired meaning?”
_Wayne Leman (WordPress.com)_
 Equivalence, when applied to the issue of translation, is an abstract concept and
actually refers to the equivalence relationship between the source text and the target
text.
_Asian social science(CCSE)_
1.4 Types of equivalence:
Nida (1969) argued that there are two different types of equivalence, namely formal
equivalence which in the second edition by Nida and Taber (1982:200) is referred to as
formal correspondence and dynamic equivalence.:
Formal equivalence is achieved when source language and target language words have the
closest possible match of form and con

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