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In the process of completing this graduation paper, I have received a great
deal of help, guidance, and encouragement from many teachers, friends and my
family. I have faced to many difficulties, but thank to your help, I overcame all
troubles and completed my graduation paper.
First of all, I would like to express my grateful thanks to Ms. Nguyen Thi
Quynh Hoa, M.A – my supervisor – for her constant and tireless support
throughout this study. During my studying process, she has willingly and
readily, suggested and given me valuable advice and detailed comments about
my study.
Furthermore, my sincere thanks also go to other teachers in foreign
language department for their teaching which helps me much in completing this
study. Especially, I am profoundly grateful to all the members in my family and
friends, who always beside me, supporting time to complete this study.

de_tai_a_study_on_extra_activities_to_improve_english_speaki

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1
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
——————————-
ISO 9001 : 2008
KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP
NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ
HẢI PHÒNG – 2012
2
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
GRADUATION PAPER
A STUDY ON EXTRA-ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE
ENGLISH SPEAKING SKILL OF QTTN CLASS AT
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVERSITY
By:
Ta Thi Minh Phuong
Class:
NA1202
Supervisor:
Mrs. Nguyen Thi Quynh Hoa
HAI PHONG – 2012
3
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
Sinh viên: …………………………Mã số:……………………………………………..
Lớp: ………………………. .Ngành:………………………………………………
Tên đề tài: ……………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………..
4
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
..
..
..
……
….


..
….
3. Địa điểm thực tập.

..
……
..
..
..
5
CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày.. tháng năm 20
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày tháng năm 20.
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày. Tháng.. năm 20.
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
6
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt nghiệp:
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra trong
nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán giá trị sử dụng,
chất lượng các bản vẽ)
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn :
(ghi bằng cả số và chữ)
Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. năm 20
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký)
7
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài
liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………. tháng……… năm 20
Người chấm phản biện
8
9
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the process of completing this graduation paper, I have received a great
deal of help, guidance, and encouragement from many teachers, friends and my
family. I have faced to many difficulties, but thank to your help, I overcame all
troubles and completed my graduation paper.
First of all, I would like to express my grateful thanks to Ms. Nguyen Thi
Quynh Hoa, M.A – my supervisor – for her constant and tireless support
throughout this study. During my studying process, she has willingly and
readily, suggested and given me valuable advice and detailed comments about
my study.
Furthermore, my sincere thanks also go to other teachers in foreign
language department for their teaching which helps me much in completing this
study. Especially, I am profoundly grateful to all the members in my family and
friends, who always beside me, supporting time to complete this study.
Finally, I would like to thank all those who have kindly given their advice
and helped me with source material during the writing of this graduation paper.
Hai Phong, December, 2012
Ta Thi Minh Phuong
10
TABLE OF CONTENT
PART I : Introduction ..1
1. Rationale …1
2. Aims of the study ..2
3. Scope of the study..2
4. Methods of the study.2
5. Design of the study3
PART II: Development.4
Chapter1: Theoretical background.4
1. Speaking ..4
1.1. Definition of speaking4
2. Factors affecting learners’ speaking skill.5
2.1. Listening …5
2.2. Grammatical accuracy…6
2.3. Understanding pronunciation.7
2.4. Accent neutralization.9
2.5. Organization ideas…11
2.6. English fluency14
2.7. Enthusiasm .15
2.8. Self-confidence16
2.9. Paralinguistic communication skills17
2.10. Length of answers18
3. Extra –activities …18
3.1. Definition of extra-activities18
3.2. Some form of extra-activities.. 19
Chapter 2: Research Methodology .40
1. Introduction …..40
2. The Objective of the Survey. 40
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3. Subjects 40
4. Methodology and Method of the Survey ..41
4.1. Methodology .41
4.2. Method ..41
5. Procedures 41
Chapter 3: finding and discussion 42
3.1. Students’ English ability42
3.2.Students’ attitude towards how speaking important to them .43
3.3.Students’ taking part in extra-activities .43
3.4. Taken Forms of extra-activities.44
3.5. Students’ opinion about extra-activities.44
PART III: Conclusion …46
1. Conclusion….. 46
2. Suggested techniques..47
3. Suggestions for further study..51
References
Appendixes
Student’s questionaire
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PART ONE : INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
Speaking skill is one of the important factor for judging a person‟s
English ability.
In the international relationship, English speaking ability is very important
to be able to participate in the wider world of work. The speaking skill is
measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the
language. This reality makes teachers and parents think that speaking
ability should be mastered by students
As a master of fact, it is not easy to study well a foreign language like
English. Almost students have difficulties in communication. In fact,
communication well is one of the key which helps learners step by step
discover this interesting language. To the non-major students especially
business administration students, speaking English is increasingly is
important factor, plays an essential role in integrating new flat working
environment. However, not all people are aware of this.
From my point of view , there is a need for business administration
students to be prepared for more business related communication in
addition to the more social and casual day- to -day communication skills
that the majority of the business administration students can master. With
this graduation paper, the writer wishes to stress the importance of extra-
activities to improve English communication of business administration
students, especially QTTN‟ students
All the above reasons have inspired the writer to choose the subject “ A
study on extra-activities to improve English speaking skill of QTTN
class at HPU” to do research
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2. Aims of the study
With the hope of helping the business administration students make
progress in studying English speaking through extra-activities, the
graduation paper aims at finding out problems and expectations in English
speaking study. Moreover, some suggestions on appreciate techniques to
study English speaking have been given. Hopefully, students will be
interested in learning English speaking. So that they will pay much
attention to the lectures and get better results/
3. Scope of the study
In fact, there are lots of various techniques to study English
communication. It requires much of time and effort. However, due to the
limitation of time, resources and knowledge of mine, this study con only
focus on study some effective techniques in studying English speaking
for the business administration students.
4. Methods of the study
English speaking is a big theme; however, because of the limited
time and my knowledge, in this paper, the writer only focuses on note
taking skill problems in listening faced by business administration
students and some techniques for teaching English to solve these
problems. The study limits itself at finding out the difficulties in learning
speaking skill of QTTN students. Moreover, the researcher concentrates
on improving note taking skill in speaking class accessed in the view of
both students and lecturers
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5. Design of the study
The study contains 3 parts
Part I: Introduction presents the rationales, aims, research questions, scope,
method and design of the study.
Part II: Development consists of three chapters
Chapter 1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND – deals with the concepts
including speaking and factors effected to speaking skill.
Chapter 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY – gives the situation analysis,
subjects, and data collection instruments.
Chapter 3: FINDING AND DISCUSSION – shows the results of the survey
and a comprehensive analysis on the data collected.
Part III: Conclusion presenting an overview of the study, suggestions for further
research and limitations of the study.
15
PART TWO: DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUNDS
1. Speaking
1.1. Definition of speaking
In Oxford Advanced Dictionary the definition of speaking is to express or
communicate opinions, feelings, ideas, etc, by or as talking and it involves the
activities in the part of the speaker as psychological, physiological (articulator)
and physical (acoustic) stages.
According to Chaney, speaking is the process of building and sharingmeaning
through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts.
While another expert, Theodore Huebner said “Language is essentially speech,
and speech is basically communication by sounds”
And according to him, speaking is a skill used by someone in daily life
communication whether at school or outside. The skill is acquired by much
repetition; it primarily a
Oxford Advanced Dictionary, p. 13 A. L. Chaney and T. L. Burke,
Teaching Oral Communication in Grades K-8
(Boston: Allyn &Bacon, 1998), p. 13
From the above definition, it can be inferred that speaking is expressing ideas,
opinions, or feelings to others by using words or sounds of articulation in order
to inform, to persuade, and to entertain that can be learnt by using some
teaching learning methodologies.
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1.2. Learning speaking
Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching. Despite its importance,
for many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued and English language teachers
have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues.
However, today’s world requires that the goal of studying speaking should improve
students’ communicative skills, because, only in that way, students can express themselves
and learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in each communicative
circumstance
2. Factors effecting learners’ speaking
2.1. Listening
Listening comprehension is a very basic skill one must have in order to be a
good English speaker. One of the most common and critical mistakes non-native
speakers of English make is focusing their time and effort in improving their
English speaking skills without first assessing and practicing their English
listening comprehension skills. A lot of them actually know grammar rules
pretty well and can construct even complex sentences. Surprisingly, just when
you thought they can communicate well in English, they suddenly come to a halt
when asked questions.
Some non-native speakers cannot understand the question/s, because the one
asking speaks too fast or because of the speaker‟s accent (in case of an
Australian or a British speaker for example).
They would often ask the speaker to repeat the question several times or request
the speaker to speak more slowly, before they finally understand the question.
Some, on the other hand, answer the question/s impressively (with not many
mistakes in grammar and pronunciation; good explanations and examples;
17
amazing fluency) just to find out in the end that he or she misunderstood the
question, and therefore gave an inappropriate answer.
2.2 Grammartical Acurracy
Some people wonder why there is a need to have grammatical accuracy in
English, when even some native English speakers commit grammatical mistakes
themselves.
Native English speakers can say what they want without much difficulty due to
their familiarity of the language. If they have difficulty expressing a certain
concept/thought in a certain way, they can just use other ways of saying those
things. They may commit some mistakes in grammar, but the mistakes do not
distort or change the meaning of the sentences they want to convey, thus, it
doesn‟t give the listener much of a problem understanding them. On the other
hand, the mistakes many non-native speakers of English commit are those that
often change the meaning of sentences they want to express, and thus create a
misunderstanding. That‟s exactly the reason why non-native speakers have to
study grammar more than native speakers.
Example :
. Pronouns
Ex. Everybody have their work to do.
(The indefinite pronouns each, anyone, anybody, , everybody and everyone are
referred to by singular pronouns. The sentence should have read “Everybody has
his work to do.)
Ex. I watched a movie with my wife last night. He liked it very much.
(He‟s talking about his wife and then he used “he” to refer to her afterwards.)
• Adjectives
Ex. She is the most fairest girl I have ever seen.
Ex. He is worst than my ex-husband.
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(If only two things/people are being compared, “worse” should be used instead
of “worst”.)
Ex. I met little people in the conference.
(“Little” is used to refer to noncount nouns. “Few” should have been used in the
sentence above, unless of course the writer/speaker was referring to midgets or
dwarfs, or if he used the word little “figuratively”.)
• Verbs
Ex. Few is expected to fail the test.
(The indefinite pronouns both, many, several and few take a plural verb.)
Ex. They hanged the old fiddle in the woodshed.
(Some are confused with hanged and hung. “Hanged” means to kill somebody
or yourself by fastening a rope around the neck and removing any other support
for the body. “Hung”, on the other hand, means to suspend or fasten something
so that it is held up from above. In this sentence, it seems as if the old fiddle was
killed, which of course doesn‟t make any sense.)
Ex. I go to school yesterday.
(The word “yesterday” indicates a past event, so the verb used should have been
“went”.)
Ex. She swimmed very fast the last time we were at the beach.
(“Swam” should have been used instead of “swimmed.”)
Ex. He don‟t know anything about it.
(“Doesn‟t” should be used instead of “don‟t” because the subject “he” is
singular.)
2.3. Understanding pronunciation
It is quite common for non-native speakers of English to mispronounce English
words. However, it is not something we have to be ashamed of, but something
learners ought to understand. They have to get to the root/s of the problems, in
order for us to improve our pronunciation. English is not phonetic
Unlike other languages, English is not phonetic. What does that mean? It means
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we don‟t always say English words the way we spell them. Let‟s compare two
languages as an example.
Ex. The Japanese word “honto” (really) is pronounced the way it is spelled. The
English word “really” is not pronounced as “re-a-li” or “re-a-lai”, nor is the word
“really” spelled as “rili”.
Ex. Another example is the word “read”. At times it is pronounced as [red] and
at times as [ri:d]. Although the spelling may not change, the way it is
pronounced changes depending on the tense you are using.
That‟s one of the main reasons non-native speakers of English get confused in
pronouncing many English words, especially if their native tongue is phonetic.
The Sounds of -ed
The past simple tense and past participle of all regular English verbs end in “ed”.
However, the “ed” added to the verbs may have different sounds which depends
if the base verb‟s sound is voiceless or voiced.
What is the difference between voiced and voiceless sounds?
VOICED -A consonant is voiced when it makes the vocal cords vibrate.
VOICELESS -When a consonant is pronounced without vibrating the vocal
cords,
it‟s voiceless.
There are three ways of pronouncing the –ed sound. / Id/ or / t/ or / d/
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Keep in mind that it is not the spelling but the sound that is important. For
instance, „wax” ends in x but the sound is /s/.
There are some exceptions though. The following words used as adjectives are
pronounced with / Id/.
blessed, aged, ragged, wretched, naked, crooked
Two ways of pronouncing “the”
hen used before a vowel sound, we say “the” as “thee”. Keep in mind that it is
the sound we should listen to, not the letters themselves.
Ex. The apple is pronounced as “thee apple”.
The hour is pronounced as “thee hour”. (hour sounds like our)
When used before a consonant sound, we say “the” as “thuh”.
Ex. The graduates is pronounced as “thuh graduates”.
The university is pronounced as “thuh university”. (university sounds like
yuniversity)
2.4 Accent neutralization
What is accent? Who has an accent? What do we do to neutralize our accent?
These questions and more will be answered by this post.
Everyone has an accent. So, when listeners hear some people say, “She‟s good
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in English. She doesn‟t have an accent,” they will find it a bit amusing. Accent
usually reflects the place where a person comes from, that‟s why it‟s easy to say
if someone is Korean, American, Filipino, British, Australian, etc., even if they
all speak in English. Accent is also one of the main reasons why people have a
hard time understanding each other, and thus many people strive to change their
accent. I said “change their accent” not “get rid of their accent”. People can
actually change their accent by studying another accent and imitating it. When
people say “neutralize” or “remove one‟s accent”, what they often mean is to get
the standard American English accent. So, how can we have this kind of accent?
First, we ought to study our native tongue‟s vowel and consonant sounds and
compare it to the Standard American English vowels and sounds. By doing this,
we will know why we‟re having difficulty imitating their accent and how we can
succeed on doing it.
Ex. Tagalog (Philippine language)for instance have only 5 vowel sounds.
A E I O U
(as in father) (as in bet) (as in indeed) (as in all) (as in ooze)
English, on the other hand, although has the same vowels, each vowel has many
different sounds.
A (as in father) A (as in mate) A (as in map)
I (as in ice) I (as in intention)
U (as in umbrella) U (as in university)
Hence, when some Filipinos speak in English, they tend to sound the English
vowels a, e, i, o, u the same way they sou

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