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No one can deny that English is now a global language especially in
this internationalization. Most people around the world know and speak
English everyday. English is spoken as the first language in many countries
and used in various aspects of life such as: economy, culture, politic, finance,
etc. In diplomatic relation among nations in the world, English is primary
language. Therefore, it is easy to understand why most economical, cultural,
financial associations have English name; also why all enterprises, companies
require their employees’ foreign languages especially English. Hence,
teaching and studying English are very necessary. And the reality solves this.
English becomes one of main subjects in almost schools in the world.
So does it in Vietnam. English has become one of compulsory subjects
in all schools at different levels from primary schools, secondary schools to
universities. It is not surprised if when a farmer can say “hello” or “thank
you” to a foreigner. It means that we not only actively study English but also
automatically absorb it.

de_tai_a_study_on_how_to_make_an_effective_presentation

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
——————————-
ISO 9001 : 2008
KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP
NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ
HẢI PHÒNG – 2010
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
GRADUATION PAPER
A STUDY ON HOW TO MAKE AN EFFECTIVE
PRESENTATION FOR THE FOURTH-YEAR ENGLISH
MAJORS AT HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVERSITY
By:
Nguyễn Hương Thơm
Class:
Na1001
Supervisor:
Đặng Thị Vân, M.A
HAI PHONG – 2010
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
Sinh viên:……………………………………………………Mãsố:……………………….
Lớp:………………………..Ngành:…………………………………………………………
Tên đề tài: …………………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt
nghiệp
( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
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..
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2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
..
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..
..
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..
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3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp.
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CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày 12 tháng 04 năm 2010
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày 10 tháng 07 năm 2010
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2010
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt
nghiệp:
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2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra
trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số
liệu):
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
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3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ):
..
..
..
Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. năm 2010
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký)
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài
liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………. tháng……… năm 2010
Người chấm phản biện
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First of all, I would like to express my sincere thank to Haiphong
Private University, an ideal environment, which gave me the chances to learn
and practise during the last 4 years.
In the process of carrying out this graduation paper, I wish to show my
great gratitude to my supervisor, Mrs. Dang Thi Van, who gave me benefit of
her wisdom and varied experience in English teaching method and who made
valuable suggestions, careful detailed and critical comments, which helped
me complete this thesis.
Besides, I want to give my sincere thank all the teachers in Foreign
Language Department of Haiphong Private University who helped me with
the preparation of all my knowledge today.
Next, I also want to thank the librarians of Haiphong Private University
for their helps in my searching and reading books for this graduation paper.
Not being forgotten is deeply gratitude to my parents and my family.
Without their helps and supports, I can not finish this graduation paper well.
Finally, I would like to give my high appreciation to my friends for
their help in finding good materials, their valuable suggestions and comments
during the time of my studying.
Haiphong, June 2010
Student
Nguyen Huong Thom
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART ONE: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
2. Aims of the study …………………………………………………………………………. 2
3. Scope of the study ……………………………………………………………………….. 3
4. Methods of the study ……………………………………………………………………. 3
5. Designs of the study …………………………………………………………………….. 3
PART TWO: THE STUDY
CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………….. 5
1. Presentation understanding …………………………………………………………. 5
1.1. What is presentation? …………………………………………………………….. 5
1.2. Classification of presentation …………………………………………………. 7
1.3. What make an effective presentation? ……………………………………… 11
2. Oral presentation ………………………………………………………………………… 13
2.1. Definition of an oral presentation ……………………………………………. 13
2.2. The importance of oral presentation in today’s business
environment …………………………………………………………………………. 14
CHAPTER 2: DIFFICULTIES FACED BY THE FOURTH-YEAR
ENGLISH MAJORS AT HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVERSITY WHEN
MAKING PRESENTATIONS ………………………………………………………………. 17
1. Description of data collection ……………………………………………………… 17
1.1. Justification ………………………………………………………………………….. 17
1.2. Description of the data collection instrument ……………………………. 17
2. Description of the subject ……………………………………………………………. 18
3. Procedures …………………………………………………………………………………. 20
4. Results collected from questionnaires and analysis ………………………. 21
4.1. The students’ attitudes toward studying speaking skills especially
presentation one …………………………………………………………………… 21
4.1.1. Participants identification ……………………………………………….. 21
4.1.2. The students’ attitudes toward speaking skills, particularly
presentation skill …………………………………………………………………………. 22
4.1.3. The students’ difficulties and their expectation when making
an oral presentation ………………………………………………………… 25
4.2. The situation of speaking skills among the fourth year English
majors at HPU. ………………………………………………………………………….. 26
4.2.1. Students’ preparation before making a presentation. …………… 27
4.2.2. The students’ appearance and psychology during their
presentations ……………………………………………………………………………. 29
4.2.3. The students’ difficulties during making a presentation ………. 30
4.2.4. The students’ audience controlling when delivering
presentations ………………………………………………………………………….. 32
4.2.5. The students’ average marks in final speaking tests ……………. 33
5. Major findings …………………………………………………………………………. 35
CHAPTER 3: HOW TO MAKE AN EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION …… 36
1. Suggested solutions for students to overcome common mistakes …………. 36
1.1. How to overcome the lack of confidence. ……………………………….. 36
1.2. How to deal with structure, vocabulary and pronunciation. ……….. 37
1.3. How to keep audience’s attention …………………………………………… 38
a. How to deal with the topic ignorance…………………………………………. 39
2. Tips to have an effective presentation ………………………………………. 40
2.1. Preparation ………………………………………………………………………….. 40
2.2. Presentation delivery ……………………………………………………………. 43
2.2.1. Use an effective introduction …………………………………………… 43
2.2.2. Use simple words, simple sentences, markers, repetition,
images, personal language ………………………………………………… 44
2.2.3. Use body language effectively …………………………………………. 45
2.2.4. Good appearance ……………………………………………………………. 47
2.2.5. Use visual aids to enhance the message …………………………….. 48
2.2.6. Create an effective conclusion …………………………………………. 50
2.2.7. Question handling …………………………………………………………. 51
2.3. After presentation ………………………………………………………………… 53
PART THREE: CONCLUSION
1. Issues added in the study ………………………………………………………….. 54
2. Summary of the major findings ………………………………………………… 54
3. Limitation of the study …………………………………………………………….. 55
4. Application of the study ……………………………………………………………. 55
5. Suggestions for further study ……………………………………………………. 55
REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………. 56
APPENDIX 1 ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
APPENDIX 2 ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
1
PART ONE: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
No one can deny that English is now a global language especially in
this internationalization. Most people around the world know and speak
English everyday. English is spoken as the first language in many countries
and used in various aspects of life such as: economy, culture, politic, finance,
etc. In diplomatic relation among nations in the world, English is primary
language. Therefore, it is easy to understand why most economical, cultural,
financial associations have English name; also why all enterprises, companies
require their employees’ foreign languages especially English. Hence,
teaching and studying English are very necessary. And the reality solves this.
English becomes one of main subjects in almost schools in the world.
So does it in Vietnam. English has become one of compulsory subjects
in all schools at different levels from primary schools, secondary schools to
universities. It is not surprised if when a farmer can say “hello” or “thank
you” to a foreigner. It means that we not only actively study English but also
automatically absorb it.
To meet the demand of internationalization, there are more and more
people in Vietnam choosing English as their major because they profoundly
understand the importance of English and its application fields in life. Having
good English skills means they will have a good job in the future.
However, to master English is not easy to Vietnamese because of
differences between the two cultures, the two linguistic characteristics.
Therefore, studying English keeps insight in a lot of difficulties.
Among English skills, speaking is not the most but very important skills
showing the users’ ability in English. Speaking is the most popular way of
communication because we use it everyday. How can we communicate
2
effectively in English if we can not speak well even we are very good at
listening, writing and reading?
In speaking skills, making a presentation is considered as the most
important one because it points out speaker’s ability and knowledge. Despite
the importance of presentation, hardly do Vietnamese people gain success in
presenting. They often fail into confusion or nerves when giving a talk or a
speech in public. English majors, who are regarded as active and gritty ones
also cope with this problems, particularly when they use English as a second
language to express their ideas.
As a fourth-year English major at Haiphong Private University,
during English speaking periods, I realize that I-myself and my friends still
get some difficulties when making a presentation. This is actually a problem
when we have to present in many occasions such as final internship report or
graduation paper. It becomes more serious when we are going to graduate and
having to find jobs in the real life. No company wants to employ us if we are
bachelor of English but can not speak it well especially can not make a
presentation good enough.
For such reasons, I am aware that giving techniques in making
presentations to students is very necessary. The fourth year English majors are
the ones who can afford presentation requirements because they have the
most basic background about speaking skills after nearly 4 years of studying
speaking skills.
I hope that the study will help me and the fourth-year English majors at
HPU improve our presentation skill remarkably, meeting the reality demand.
2. Aims of the study
My main aim is how to make an effective presentation, giving students
techniques to make better one. Therefore, this study is aimed at:
3
– Finding out the difficulties faced by the students when they make a
presentation.
– Giving out solutions for difficulties and tips for an effective
presentation.
3. Scope of the study
Because of the variation of presentation and its own objectives,
restriction of time, limitation of knowledge and experience, it is impossible
for me to cover all the aspects of English presentation as well as good
methods for teaching and studying presentation skill in speaking skill periods;
therefore, I would like to focus on finding difficulties in making a
presentation and give out techniques to make an effective presentation for the
fourth year English majors at Haiphong Private University. I hope that my
study will be a reference for the English majors at HPU as well as all students
who want to get improvement in making presentations.
4. Methods of the study
To finish this study, I carried out some following methods:
– Collecting information from reference books and websites.
– Interviewing and conducting Survey questionnaires for the fourth year
English majors at HPU.
– Consulting from my supervisor and other teachers in foreign language
department as well as my all friends at HPU.
5. Design of the study
The study consists of three main parts:
Part one is the introduction including the rationale, aim, scope,
methods, objectives of the study.
Part two is the development, the most important part of my study,
divided into three chapters:
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Chapter 1: “Literature review”
In this chapter, I introduce the general theory of presentation,
classification of presentation especially oral presentation, then draw out some
problems and give out solutions.
Chapter 2: “Difficulties faced by the fourth year English majors at
HPU when making a presentation”.
This chapter refers to the analysis and the findings obtained from
survey questionnaires and evaluation for students, interviewing teachers and
personal experience to find out difficulties that the fourth year English major
at HPU scope with, then give some solutions to solve.
Chapter 3: “How to make an effective presentation among the
fourth year English majors at Haiphong Private University”.
This chapter refers to the most important process for a presentation, tips
for the HPU students to make an effective presentation.
Part three is the conclusion of my study.
In summary, the introduction part is like a general and first look of my
graduation paper. Through this opening, the readers know what my research
is, why I choose this subject, what the paper for and the methods I use to
make it. Besides, looking at this part, we can get the design of all the main
contents I present in the paper namely “How to make an effective presentation
for the fourth year English majors at Haiphong Private University”.
Now, after this introduction I will go in detail into the literature review
in which we will have a look on presentation, especially oral presentation and
its importance.
5
PART TWO: THE STUDY
CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW
1. Presentation understanding
1.1. What is a presentation?
To make an effective presentation, the first thing we should understand
clearly is what a presentation is; therefore, the definition of it must be extract
and clear enough for all people to be able to understand.
There are a lot of definitions about presentation; however, I only figure
out some of them that are, in my opinion, easy to understand.
The first one is a broad definition of a presentation. According to the
definition from Wikipedia, an online dictionary, “Presentation is the practice
of showing and explaining the content of a topic to an audience or learner”.
(
According to this definition, all what we do to explain something
special or detailed to others called presentations.
Another definition is: “Presentation is a short talk by one person to a
group of people introducing and describing a particular subject”.
(Teaching Presentation Skill to ESL.Ss- www.englishclub.com)
This is a narrow definition. In reality, presentations may be given by
one more person and are not short talks because they may be done by videos,
film, etc.
In different aspects we have specific definitions about presentation. For
example, in business we have definition: “A presentation is a formal talk to one
or more people that presents ideas or information in a clear, structured way”.
(Business presentation & public speaking English- www.Englishclub.com)
6
In this definition, it is said that “presentation is a formal talk” because
this case is in business activities, they need formality.
Compared with reports, we have a definition from Big Dog:
“Presentations and reports are ways of communicating ideas and information
to a group. But unlike a report, a presentation carries the speaker’s personality
better and allows immediate interaction between all participants”.
(Presentation Skills-Big Dog’s Leadership Page-
One more definition comes from Morrissey & Sechrest (1987:2): “A
presentation involves the preparation and delivery of critical subject matter in

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