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To fulfill this assignment, I have received a lot of helps from supervisors,
family and friends. First of all, I would like to show my sincere thanks to my
supervisor Mrs Nguyen Quynh Chi M.A who supports me with useful advices,
valuable guide to finish this study.
My thanks also go to all of teachers in Foreign Language Department of
Hai Phong Private University, providing materials for this study and having
taught me through four years at university .
Finally, I want to thank my parents who always stand by and support
me both materially and mentally. This study would not have been completed
without their whole-hearted helps. For my young experience and knowledge, I
would like to received more useful comments from teachers and others.

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
——————————-
ISO 9001 : 2008
KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP
NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ
HẢI PHÒNG – 2010
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
GRADUATION PAPER
A STUDY ON HOW TO MAKE AN EFFECTIVE
PRESENTATION FOR THE FOURTH-YEAR ENGLISH
MAJORS AT HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVERSITY
By:
Nguyễn Thị Thu
Class:
Na1001
Supervisor:
Nguyễn Thị Quỳnh Chi, M.A
HAI PHONG – 2010
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
Sinh viên: ……………………………………………………Mã số:……………………….
Lớp: ………………………..Ngành:…………………………………………………………..
Tênđềtài: ……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………..
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp.
..
..
.
CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày 12 tháng 04 năm 2010
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày 10 tháng 07 năm 2010
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2010
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt nghiệp:
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra
trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số
liệu):
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ):
..
..
..
Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. nă2010
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài liệu,
số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………. tháng……… năm 2010
Người chấm phản biện
Acknowledgements
To fulfill this assignment, I have received a lot of helps from supervisors,
family and friends. First of all, I would like to show my sincere thanks to my
supervisor Mrs Nguyen Quynh Chi M.A who supports me with useful advices,
valuable guide to finish this study.
My thanks also go to all of teachers in Foreign Language Department of
Hai Phong Private University, providing materials for this study and having
taught me through four years at university.
Finally, I want to thank my parents who always stand by and support
me both materially and mentally. This study would not have been completed
without their whole-hearted helps. For my young experience and knowledge, I
would like to received more useful comments from teachers and others.
Hai Phong, June, 2010
Student
Nguyen Thi Thu
Table of contents
PART I: INTRODUCTION.1
1. Rationale. 1
2. Aims of the study2
3. Scope of the study…2
4. Method of the study.2
5. Design of the study..3
PART II: DEVELOPMENT….4
Chapter I: General theoretical background.4
1. Definition of idioms4
2. The Origins of Idioms.6
3. Some common features of idioms…9
4. Classification of idioms.11
Chapter II: English- Vietnamese idioms related to the weathe16
1. The role of idioms in daily life .16
2. English idioms related to the weather…..16
2.1 Forecasting the bad weather16
2.2 Forecasting the fair weather….22
3. Vietnamese idioms related to the weather.26
3.1 Forecasting the bad weather26
3.2 Forecasting the fair weather….27
4. Comparison & Contrast between English and Vietnamese idiom…29
4.1 Similarities……29
4.2 Differences……31
Chapter III: Some difficulties for learner of English when study
idioms….34
1. Some difficulties in studying idioms…..34
2. Suggested solutions…34
PART III: CONCLUSION.36
1. Major findings…36
2. Implications for ELT & learning…37
3. Suggestions for further study….39
References40
1
PART I: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
Nowadays, English is the most widely used language in the world and
plays an important role together with the development of society and
technologies. English is not only the effective means of communication but also
show its progressive effects on many aspects of life.
Once upon a time, when the civilization of mankind was not appeared, our
father knew basing on natural phenomena to create and sum up into many
idioms which was short, stable but had a full meaning to help the children could
remember, think and do them. Up to now, idioms have kept a big role both in
producing agriculture and daily life of English and Vietnamese people. It
becomes more and more perfect to contribute to mankind.
Moreover, idioms bring more plentiful culture of its own nations. Most of
us always concern the idioms related to the weather. Those are representative
idioms in literature which both English and Vietnamese people interest, pay
much attention to in all activities which they take part in such as: doing outside
activities, traveling, doing agriculture, etc…. Specially, weather is a major factor
to participate in creating a main crop more abundant than usual.
Bearing it in my mind, the author desires to raise readers’ awareness of
and broaden their vocabularies of weather – related idioms. It is the nature
beauty and the former generations’ precious experience and educating lessons
that cause readers’ interest and love for idioms. I hope that learners will
understand the using of weather idioms in English-Vietnamese idioms. That is
also the main reasons motivating me to carry out this research: “English –
Vietnamese idioms related to the weather.”
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2. Aims of the study
Being aware of the fact that idioms are extremely difficult topic for foreign
learners and native speakers. My research is aimed at:
– Providing the description of English – Vietnamese idioms to realize their
similarities and differences.
– Comparing and contrasting some certain English – Vietnamese idioms related
to the weather to find out the similarities and differences in their meaning and
usage as well as in the two countries’ culture and society.
– Helping the learners use right idioms in right situations.
3. Scope of the study
During the study process, I have been attracted by the weather in English
and Vietnamese idioms. Due to time allowance and limited knowledge, all the
weather idioms in English – Vietnamese can not be covered, therefore, some
main points will be discussed:
– The importance of English – Vietnamese idioms related to the weather in daily
life.
– The similarities and differences in the people’s feeling, attitude and experience
towards the weather in English – Vietnamese idioms, partially reflecting the two
nations’ culture and society.
4. Method of the study
To carry out this research, some methods have been used.
– Data collection through reference books, internet, dictionary, etc
– Data analysis
– Discussion with friends, teachers and supervisor.
3
5. Design of the study
This paper consists three main parts, helping an easy exploration and practical
benefits.
Part I: Introduction
Part II: Development
Chapter 1: Theoretical background
Chapter 2: English – Vietnamese idioms related to the weather.
Chapter 3: Some difficulties for English learners to English idioms related to the
weather.
Part III: Conclusion.
4
PART II: DEVELOPMENT
Chapter I: General theoretical background
1. Definition of idioms
An idiom is an expression whose meaning is not compositional – that is,
whose meaning does not follow from the meaning of the individual words of
which it is composed (website: wikipedia.org/wiki/idiom-22k).
In the English expression to kick the bucket, for example, listener
knowing only the meaning of kick and bucket would be unable to deduce the
expression’s actual meaning, which is to die. Although it can refer literally to the
act of striking a specific bucket with a foot, English native speakers rarely use it
that way.
Idiom is a speech from or an expression of a given language that is
peculiar to it grammatically or can not be understood from the individual
meaning of its elements. (Website: www.answer.com/topic/idiom).
For instance, to fall out mean to quarrel, but neither fall nor out has a
sense of quarrel. Another example is a feather is one’s cap which means an
honor or a success, of which one can be proud. The meaning of this idiom is
metaphorical one. Under the rose is also very difficult to understand from the
literal meaning of its component words, its true meaning is secretly.
An idiom is a word or phrase which means something different from what
it says – it is usually a metaphor. Idioms are common phrases or term whose
meaning are not literal, but are figurative and only known through their common
uses. (
5
Idiom is a phrase or sentence whose meaning is not clear from the
meaning of its individual words and which must be learnt as whole unit. (in
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).
The Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics
regards an idiom as “an expression which function as a single unit and whose
meaning can not be worked out from its separate parts.”
– Thành ngữ là những cụm từ hay câu có nghĩa không rõ nếu cộng nghĩa
của các từ riêng biệt; do vậy thành ngữ phải được coi là một đơn vị hoàn chỉnh.
An idiom is a phrase or sentence whole meaning is not clear from the meaning
of its individual words; therefore, it must be considered a whose unit. (Xuân
Bá.2006-p98.Trau dồi ngữ pháp và từ vựng tiếng anh.NXB Đại học Sư Phạm.)
– Thành ngữ hoặc là những cụm từ mang ngữ nghĩa cố định (phần lớn
không tạo thành câu hoàn chỉnh về mặt ngữ pháp), (không thể thay thế và sửa
đổi về mặt ngôn từ) và độc lập riêng rẽ với từ ngữ hay hình ảnh mà thành ngữ sử
dụng trong việc tạo thành những câu nói hoàn chỉnh. An idiom is a meaningful
stable phrase (most of them do not make a full sentence in tern of grammar),
(cannot be replaced and modified in terms of language), and separated and
independently from the language or images which idioms are used to create
complete sentences.
(From www.vi.wikiquote.org/wiki/thanh_ngu_viet_nam)
From the above definitions of English idioms, it can be defined that
English idioms are some special language structure units- phrases, words groups
and expression, their meaning always can not be inferred from the literal
meaning of the constituting- words of idioms, their meaning should be
understood from the conventional form of whole idioms. From the broad sense,
the English idioms include the phrases, common saying, proverbs, and idiomatic
6
phrases, slang a two- part allegorical saying and allusion and so on.
2. The Origins of Idioms
2.1 Idioms from cognition of animals
Human beings are not the only animated objects in the world. There are all
kinds of animals throughout the world. Some animals live far away from human
beings, such as polar bears. Because they live so far that common people are not
familiar with them, the unfamiliar animal terms are seldom used in languages.
But some other animals live near to human beings, such as domestic animals.
Human beings raise them as pets, keep them for food or make them guards to
protect people. As a result, relatively, human beings clearly know their habits
and characteristics. Such animal terms occur in human language more frequently
as in “cats and dogs”, “let the cat out of the bag”, “as wise as an owl”. It is
clear that people often associate certain qualities with certain creatures. These
qualities often arouse certain reactions or emotions. For example, the beaver is
chiefly a North American animal. Its constant activity, its habit of gnawing down
trees and building complex “homes” and its skill and ingenuity in doing this
have earned for the animal the name eager beaver, which describes a person who
is anxious to get something done, works hard, and is somewhat impatient.
2.2 Idioms from cognition of natural environment
The natural environment also left deep imprints in culture. Britain is an
island; it is located on the British Isles. To its south, it is the English Channel
and the Straits of Dover. To its east, it is the North Sea. There are many idioms
connected with sea, fish, sailor, trade and navigation, for example, “go by the
board”. This idiom originated from the Boat Age. “The board” refers to the side
of a boat. In the storm, if the rail is broken, the captain will have two choices.
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One is to fix it, and the other is to let it go by the board and fall into the water.
The former will offer people the slim chance of survival but the later will lead to
death. Now people use this idiom to mean “failure of a plan”. There are other
examples: take someone down a peg; steer clear of; tide over; as close as an
oyster; cast an anchor to windward; hoist sail while the wind is fair; like a ship
without a rudder; between the devil and the deep blue sea.
2.3 Idioms from cognition of weather
Weather is very important in our life, from many years ago, people have
based on it to develop economy. People observe and interest in the natural
phenomena and they have summed up into many idioms. That is the reason why
I want to make this research. Some idioms about the weather such as:
brass-monkey weather, lovely weather for ducks, etc…
2.4 Idioms from cognition of amusement
English idioms connected with amusement show adventurousness,
teamwork spirit, mobility and violence. In card game, each important move
involves risk. Americans are ready to venture for a winning, especially from bad
luck. When you play cards with other, you are eager to win so you maybe “have
a card up one’s sleeve”. At the end of each round, the winner “throws up the
cards” and other players follow suit. In this way, the cards, which are held by
each player, are shown to all. There is no secret in this. There is a sense of
frankness and openness. There are many idioms from baseball, such as, “to not
get to first base”. This idiom means “failing early or at the beginning of an
attempt”.
2.5 Idioms from cognition of culinary art and food
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There are some idioms containing diet terms in English. Bread, cheese
and butter are the staple diet in Anglo-American culture. And many idioms are
related to them such as “baker’s dozen”. This idiom originated from England in
15th century. At that time, there were some rules on weight of bread for sale. But
it was not easy to keep the same weight due to poor production condition. In
order to avoid being punished because of lack of weight, the bakers often added
another one in a bag of bread with a ruled dozen. They thought more were better
than less. So “baker’s dozen” became thirteen instead of twelve. Englishmen
don’t like the number “thirteen”. Then, they usually use “baker’s dozen” to
substitute the number thirteen. With bread, they would not be hungry. But men
could not live by bread alone. They needed spiritual culture. So the rulers
provided circus for common people to keep people peaceful and get people’s
support. Then the idiom “bread and circuses” was formed. Pudding and pie are
popular pastry. Some idioms are from them, such as “The proof of the pudding
is in the eating”. Making pudding is not easy and different people may have
different flavors. Only when you eat it can you know its quality. So as an idiom,
“The proof of the pudding is in the eating.” means “practice is the best way to
test something”. “As easy as pie” originated from ease and enjoyment in eating
pie. Some diet-related idioms are from cooking. Besides idioms related to
traditional food such as bread, butter, cheese, some idioms are connected with
beverage. Tea is popular beverage. In 17th century, the Dutch brought tea to
Europe. From then on, European people especially Englishmen are fond of tea.
Afternoon tea has become traditional habit. Many idioms are related with this
custom, for example, “high tea”, “low tea”, “for all the tea in China”.
2.6 Idioms from cognition of laboring
In English, many idioms reflect the importance of agriculture and
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industry because the geographical location provides them possibility. From the
earliest days, the sight of farmers working the land has been at the heart of the
American experience. Agriculture provides the sustenance that meets people’s
most basic needs. Agriculture represents a bond of continuity between present
and past, linking new generations with the rhythms and dreams of generations of
long ago. American agriculture assumes a richness and variety unmatched in
most other parts of the world. In part, this is due to the vastness of the nation
itself; in part, it is due to the generosity of nature. Large areas of level or gently
rolling land especially in the eastern Great Plains provide ideal conditions for
large-scale agriculture. Therefore, many idioms reflect agricultural work in
Anglo-American culture, such as, “sow one’s wild oats”, “As you sow, so will
you reap.”, “as like as two peas in a pod”. In English, idioms also show a
detailed division of social labor. Idioms come from all trades and professions,
for example:
A tailor says, “Cut the coat according to the cloth.”
A farmer says, “As a man sow, so shall he reap.”
A fisherman says, “The best fish swim near the bottom.”
A housewife says, “A stitch in time saves nine.”
3. Some common features of idioms.
The definitions of English idioms have been discussed in the above; an
English idiom has its different characters from other words and expressions.
Thus, English idioms mainly have two aspect characters.
First of all, being phrases or sentences, idioms each consist at least two or
more constituents, but each is a semantic unity. Through the various words
which make up the idiom have their respective literal meanings, they have lost
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their individual identities in the idiom. That is to say, their meanings are not

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