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I do not know when I love such the fork songs, idioms and the proverbs in my
country. May be, I am a person who grow up in the sea of the fork songs and
proverbs when I was a child, closing to my grandmother‘s hand and my mother‘s
love. Any when I went to sleeping, I was also heard many fork songs and proverbs
by my grandmother. Up to now, I also remembered clearly some of the fork song
like this:
―Cày đồng đang buổi ban trưa,
Mồ hôi thánh thót như mưa ruộng cày.
Ai ơi bưng bát cơm đầy,
Dẻo thơm một hạt đắng cay muôn phần.‖

de_tai_a_study_on_hyperbole_in_short_stories_of_some_typical

 

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
——————————-
ISO 9001 : 2008
KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP
NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ
HẢI PHÒNG – 2010
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
GRADUATION PAPER
A STUDY ON HYPERBOLE IN SHORT STORIES OF
SOME TYPICAL VIETNAMESE AND AMERICAN
WRITERS
By:
NGUYEN PHUONG NHUNG
Class:
NA1002
Supervisor:
TRAN THI NGOC LIEN, M.A
HAI PHONG – 2010
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
Sinh viên: ……………………………………………………Mã số:……………………….
Lớp: ………………………..Ngành:…………………………………………………………..
Tên đề tài: …………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………..
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
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2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
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3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp.
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CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày 12 tháng 04 năm 2010
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày 10 tháng 07 năm 2010
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2010
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt nghiệp:
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2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra trong
nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số liệu):
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3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ):
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Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. năm 2010
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký)
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài liệu,
số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………. tháng……… năm 2010
Người chấm phản biện
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the process of completing this graduation paper, I have received a
great deal of assistance, guidance and encouragement from my supervisor, my
teacher, my friends and my family.
First of all, I would like to express my deepest thanks to my
supervisor- the leader of the foreign language department, Mrs Tran Thi Ngoc
Lien, M.A. who has given me suggestions on how to shape the study and
always has encouraged continuously, has given me valuable advices,
constructive comments during the time of writing this graduation paper.
Next, I would like to express my gratitude to Mrs Nguyen Thi Yen
Thoa, M.A. and other lecturers in the foreign language department for their
lectures and instructions which help me a lot in completing this study.
I also want to express my sincere thanks to my friends who have
always shared to me their interests, concerns and supports to this study.
Last but not least, I would like to thank my family who has facilitated
me to complete this study.
Hai Phong, June, 2010
Student
Nguyen Phuong Nhung
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART ONE: INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………… 1
1. Rationale of the study ………………………………………………………………… 1
2. Aims of the study ………………………………………………………………………. 2
3. Scope of the study ……………………………………………………………………… 2
4. Method of the study …………………………………………………………………… 3
5. Design of the study…………………………………………………………………….. 3
PART TWO: DEVELOPMENT ………………………………………………….. 4
CHAPTER I: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ………………………… 4
1. Word ………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
1.1. Definition of word ………………………………………………………………… 4
1.2. Types of word ……………………………………………………………………… 5
2. Word meaning …………………………………………………………………………… 6
2.1. Definition of meaning ………………………………………………………….. 6
2.2. Types of meaning ………………………………………………………………… 7
2.2.1. Lexical meaning …………………………………………………………. 7
2.2.2. Grammatical meaning …………………………………………………. 9
3. Hyperbole …………………………………………………………………………………. 10
3.1. What is hyperbole ……………………………………………………………….. 10
3.1.1. Definition of English hyperbole……………………………………. 11
3.1.2. Antonyms of English hyperbole …………………………………… 13
3.1.3. Definition of Vietnamese hyperbole ……………………………… 14
3.1.4. Antonyms of Vietnamese hyperbole ……………………………… 16
CHAPTER II: HYPERBOLE IN SHORT STORIES OF SOME
TYPICAL AMERICAN AND VIETNAMESE WRITERS …………. 18
1. Overview of hyperbole in American and Vietnamese short stories. . 18
2. Hyperbole in typical American short stories ………………………………. 19
2.1. Structure of hyperbole in typical American short stories ……….. 19
2.1.1. Hyperbole in terms of words………………………………………. 19
2.1.2 Hyperbole in terms of phrases …………………………………….. 20
2.1.3. Hyperbole in terms of clauses …………………………………….. 22
2.1.4. Hyperbole in terms of sentences …………………………………. 25
2.2. Meaning of hyperbole in typical American short stories ………… 25
2.2.1. Hyperbole with low level of intensification …………………. 25
2.2.2. Hyperbole with medium level of intensification …………… 26
2.2.3. Hyperbole with high level of intensification ………………… 27
2.3. Stylistic features of hyperbole in American short stories ……….. 27
2.3.1. Formal stylistic scales ……………………………………………….. 27
2.3.2. Informal stylistic scales ……………………………………………… 28
3. Hyperbole in typical Vietnamese short stories ……………………………… 28
3.1. Structure of hyperbole in typical Vietnamese short stories ………. 29
3.1.1. Hyperbole in terms of words ………………………………………… 29
3.1.2. Hyperbole in terms of phrases …………………………………… 30
3.1.3. Hyperbole in terms of clauses ……………………………………… 33
3.1.4. Hyperbole in terms of idioms ……………………………………… 34
3.1.5. Hyperbole in terms of sentences ………………………………….. 35
3.2 Meaning of hyperbole in typical Vietnamese short stories ………. 35
3.2.1. Hyperbole with low level of intensification …………………… 35
3.2.2. Hyperbole with medium level of intensification …………….. 36
3.2.3. Hyperbole with high level of intensification ………………….. 37
3.3. Stylistic scales of hyperbole in typical Vietnamese short stories 38
3.3.1. Formal stylistic scales …………………………………………………. 38
3.3.2. Informal stylistic scales ……………………………………………….. 38
CHAPTER III: IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY ………………………. 40
1. Difficulties faced by learners of English in interpreting and using
hyperbole in American and Vietnamese short stories ………………………… 40
2. Some solutions ………………………………………………………………………… 41
PART THREE: CONCLUSION ………………………………………………….. 45
1. Issues addressed in the study …………………………………………………….. 45
2. Recommendations and Suggestions for further study …………………… 46
References …………………………………………………………………………………… 48
Appendix …………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
PART ONE: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale of the study
I do not know when I love such the fork songs, idioms and the proverbs in my
country. May be, I am a person who grow up in the sea of the fork songs and
proverbs when I was a child, closing to my grandmother‘s hand and my mother‘s
love. Any when I went to sleeping, I was also heard many fork songs and proverbs
by my grandmother. Up to now, I also remembered clearly some of the fork song
like this:
―Cày đồng đang buổi ban trưa,
Mồ hôi thánh thót như mưa ruộng cày.
Ai ơi bưng bát cơm đầy,
Dẻo thơm một hạt đắng cay muôn phần.‖
Or the proverb likes this:
―Đêm tháng năm chưa nằm đã sáng
Ngày tháng mười chưa cười đã tối‖
At that time, by the smoothly rhythm of my grandmother‘s voices, I just knew
that the fork songs and proverb was very interesting and easy to learn by heart.
When I grew up a little, I studied at primary school, secondary school, high
school and university with many different subjects, especially semantics I realized
that it is the fork songs and the proverbs my grandmother often talked to me that is
outstanding hyperbolical usage. And now, I can analyze the meaning of those fork
songs and proverbs.
In the fork song, ―mồ hôi thánh thót như mưa ruộng cày‖ shows sweat drops
very much. And the meaning of ―chưa nằm đã sáng‖ and ―chưa cười đã tối‖ are
the night of May and the day of October are very short.
This phenomenon step by step attracts me a lot, and that drives me the wish to
study in order to understand it more. And when I started to make a minor
comparison between the way Vietnamese and American use hyperbole, this
linguistic issue totally captivates my attention. Therefore I choose hyperbole as the
major topic in my graduation paper hoping that first I can understand it then help
other Vietnamese learners to grasp the in-depth meanings shown in each
hyperbole. However, because of the time limit and the scope of the study, I only
can focus on the hyperbole used in some typical Vietnamese and American short
stories.
2. Aims of the study
The study is aimed at:
– Figure out common hyperbole used in some typical short stories of American and
Vietnamese writers.
– Analyze the formation and implied means of hyperbole
– Identify common mistakes
– Suggest some effective solutions.
3. Scope of the study
It is too difficult for me to study all hyperboles because of my limited
knowledge and time for this study so I only focus on hyperbole in some short
stories which we often find when reading the stories. I will give some information
on hyperbole and stress on the analysis of the expression of hyperbole in some
typical short stories of American writers which I can compare them to Vietnamese
ones.
4. Method of the study
In this graduation paper, I use some main methods. Firstly, I use quantitative
research including statistical analyze to analyze the data collected. Then I classify
hyperbole. Then, hypothesis testing is the second method in used setting the
hypothesis for the use of hyperbole in typical American short stories and typical
Vietnamese ones, trying to figure out why they are put in use in this or that way.
And finally is comparative research which enables me to find out the differences
and similarities between hyperbole in Vietnamese and American.
5. Design of the study
This study consists of three parts of which the second is the most important
Part one is the introduction which states the reason of the study, the aims of
the study, the scope of the study, the method of the study and the design of the
study.
Part two is Development which is the main content that concludes three
chapters: The first chapter is the theoretical background. It focuses on some
general definitions. The second chapter stresses on the hyperbole in some short
stories of typical American and Vietnamese writers and then finding differences
and similarities between them. The third chapter will give some common mistakes
and solutions, some exercises will provide knowledge about hyperbole.
Part three is the conclusion of the whole study which summarizes the main topic
given in the part two.
PART TWO: DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER I: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
1. Word
1.1. Definition of word
Lexicology is the study on stock of the words in a given language. The word is,
therefore, of centre importance in lexicology. The fundamental we should attempt
to answer is ―what exactly do we mean by the term ―word‖ in lexicology‖.
The term ―word‖ is used to specify an intermediate structure smaller than a
whole phrase and generally larger than single sound segment. Therefore, the word
may be defined differently
According to Nguyen Manh Hung (2006:3), word is defined as ―a speech unit
used for the purposes of human communication, materially representing a group of
sounds, possessing a meaning, susceptible to grammatical employment and
characterized by formal and semantic unity‖.
According to Jackson and Amvela (2000:50), word is considered as ―an
uninterruptible unit of structure consisting of one or more morphemes and which
typically occurs with the structure of phrase‖. The morphemes are ultimate
grammatical constituents, the minimal meaningful unit of language. For example,
the different form of the verb ―sing‖, i.e. sing, sings, singing, sang, sung are
separated word grammatically, similarly. Record (v) and record (n) are different
grammatical words.
In general, there are many ways to define word. The word may be defined
differently depending on whether we focus on its representation, the thought which
it expresses or purely formal criteria. We can define word base on the
phonological, lexical, grammatical points of view and semantic. However, we can
see that definition of word according to Hoang Tat Truong seems to be the most
satisfactory.
According to Hoang Tat Truong (1993:11), word is defined as ―A word is a
dialectical unit of form and content, independent unit of language to form a
sentence by itself‖. For example: ―hand, bag, unhappy, come, drink, vocabulary,
forget-me-not‖ and so forth. Each word here can stand independently and it still
has meaning.
Words in English may be classified as: lexical and grammatical words. Lexical
word (including nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs) has fairly independent and
meaning in isolations or in series. It was also referred to a ―lexeme‖. A lexeme is
lexical unit of the vocabulary. The term ―lexeme‖ is sometime used to denote a
lexical word and this avoid confusion with the term ―word‖ in general. In contrast,
grammatical word (including articles, prepositions, and conjunctions, forms
indicating number or tense and so on) does not automatically suggest any
identifiable meaning.
1.2. Types of word
Word can be classified into three types: simple words derived words and
compound words by Hoang Tat Truong.
A simple word is one that only consists of root morpheme: ―school, boy, table,
big, blue, talk, begin, next, etc‖
A derived word is one that consists of a root and one or more derivational
morphemes: teacher, employee, unhappiness, enrich,
antidisestablishmentarianism, etc.
A compound word is one that has at least two roots, with or without derivational
morphemes: blackboard, handbag, greenhouse, bluebottle, goody-goody, etc
Words are often considered as linguistic sign, similar certain respect to natural
and conventional signs. They do not have meaning but rather are capable of
conveying meanings which carries both lexical and grammatical meanings of the
word.
2. Word meaning
2.1. Definition of meaning
The question ―what is meaning‖ is one of the questions which are easier to ask
than to answer. The linguistic science at present is not able to put forward a
definition of meaning which is conclusive.
However, the certain fact is that the function of word as a unit of communication
is made possible by its possessing a meaning. Therefore, among the word‘s various
characteristic meaning is the most important.
General speaking, meaning can be more or less described as a way endowing the
word through which a concept is communicated, in this qualities, actions and
abstract notions.
(Nguyen Manh Hung, 2006:43)
More carefully analyzed, the word ―meaning‖ is derived from the verb ―mean‖
and both of them are used like many other English words, in the wide range of
contexts and in several distinguishable senses.
For example, to take the case of the verb, if someone says:
―Smith means well‖
(Nguyen Hoa, 2001:7)
He implies that Smith is well-intentioned, that he intends no harm
―Red flag means danger‖
(Nguyen Hoa, 2001:7)
In this saying, one would not normally imply that the flag had plans to endanger
anyone; one would be pointing out that it is used to indicate the danger in
surrounding environment, such as the use of explosives in the nearby quarry or
deeply lake. After those, we can see that there are many different meanings of the
word ―mean‖.
2.2. Types of meaning
“Some tigers are roaring at the mouth of the cave”
(Hoang Tat Truong, 1993:86)
The above is a meaningful part. One of the smaller parts is the word ―tiger‖
which refers to certain animal. We can call it a referring expression. A tiger
expression is a piece of language that is used as if it is linked something outside
language, some living or death entities or concepts. Another meaningful part is the
verb ―roar‖ which is also linked to something outside of language, an action here
associated with the referring expression ―tiger‖. We call this meaningful predicate
wh

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