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My enthusiasm of English has been along with me since I was at
primary school. I remember that when I was in 2
nd
form, my mother elder
sister taught me the first lessons of English. It was her who set the passion for
studying English for me. After graduating from my high school, therefore, I
decided to study English in the Foreign Language Department of Hai Phong
Private University. During four years studying of English here, all subjects of
English have made me interested such as lexicology, phonetics and
translation. In all of them, grammar is the subject which occupies my interest
the most. Objectively speaking, subject grammar is difficult but very
interesting.

de_tai_a_study_on_prepositions_of_direction_and_some_errors

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
——————————-
ISO 9001 : 2008
KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP
NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ
HẢI PHÒNG – 2010
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
GRADUATION PAPER
A STUDY ON PREPOSITIONS OF DIRECTION AND
SOME ERRORS MADE BY VIETNAMESE LEARNERS
By:
Ngô Thị Thu Diệu
Class:
Na1001
Supervisor:
Phạm Thị Thu Hằng, M.A
HAI PHONG – 2010
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
Sinh viên:………………………………………………….Mã số:……………………….
Lớp:………………………..Ngành
Tên đề tài: …………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt
nghiệp
( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp.
..
..
..
CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày 12 tháng 04 năm 2010
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày 10 tháng 07 năm 2010
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2010
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt
nghiệp:
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra
trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số
liệu):
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ):
..
..
..
Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. năm 2010
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký)
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài
liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………. tháng……… năm 2010
Người chấm phản biện
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
For helpful comments on the early drafts of this graduation paper, I am
grateful to M.A Pham Thi Thu Hang, the lecturer of the Department of
Foreign Language, Hai Phong Private University. She was critical and
demanding and yet very caring and supportive along the way.
I also wish to send many thanks to the Dean of Foreign Language
Department of Hai Phong Private University, Ms. Tran Thi Ngoc Lien.
In addition, I would like to thank all teachers in the Foreign Language
Department of Hai Phong Public University for their support and enthusiasm
to me.
Hai Phong, June 2010
Ngo Thi Thu Dieu
TABLE OF CONTENT
Acknowledgements
PART I: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale of the study
2. Aim of the study
3. Scope of the study
4. Methods of the study
5. Organization of the study
PART II : DEVELOPMENT
Chapter I : Theoretical background
1. Preliminary theory of preposition
1.1. What are prepositions?
1.2. Functions of preposition
1.2.1. Show the relation of a noun to a noun, a noun to a verb
1.2.2. Show the relation of a whole clause to a verb or an
adjective, to a noun.
2. Classification of preposition
2.1. According to structural grammar
2.1.1. Simple Prepositions
2.1.2. Compound Prepositions
2.1.3. Participial
2.1.4. Phrase Prepositions
2.2. According to function
2.2.1. Prepositions of Place
2.2.2. Prepositions of Direction
2.2.3. Prepositions of Time
2.2.4. Prepositions of Manner
2.2.5. Prepositions of Relation
2.2.6. Prepositions of Purpose
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2
2
2
3
4
4
4
5
6
6
7
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
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12
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13
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2.2.7. Prepositions of Cause
Chapter II: Prepositions of direction
1. Prepositions of direction.
1.1. What are prepositions of directions
1.2. List and meanings
2. Analysis of some examples of preposition of direction
2.1. The first example
2.2. The second example.
2.3. The third example
2.4. The forth example
2.5. The fifth example
3. Some typical cases of preposition of direction
3.1. Use of “to”
3.1.1. The preposition to is used as an ordinary preposition
with verbs of communication
3.1.2. The preposition to is used as an ordinary preposition with
verbs of movement
3.2. Uses of “into”
3.2.1. With verbs expressing motion, into and in are may be
used interchangeably
3.2.2. Using in or into with the verb move
3.3. Use of “onto”
3.3.1. “Onto” can generally be replaced by “on” with verbs of
motion
3.3.2. Some verbs of motion express the idea that the subject
causes itself or some physical object to be situated in a certain place.
Chapter III : Some errors made by Vietnamese learners, findings
and implication
1. Some errors made by Vietnamese learners
2. Findings and implication
13
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35
PART III: CONCLUSION
APPENDIX
REFERENCES
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39
42
1
PART I
INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale of the study
My enthusiasm of English has been along with me since I was at
primary school. I remember that when I was in 2
nd
form, my mother elder
sister taught me the first lessons of English. It was her who set the passion for
studying English for me. After graduating from my high school, therefore, I
decided to study English in the Foreign Language Department of Hai Phong
Private University. During four years studying of English here, all subjects of
English have made me interested such as lexicology, phonetics and
translation. In all of them, grammar is the subject which occupies my interest
the most. Objectively speaking, subject grammar is difficult but very
interesting.
Preposition is one of interesting parts in English grammar. They show
us relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence.
However, almost learners of English find prepositions difficult. There are
hardly any rules which explain in detail the uses of each preposition.
Prepositions of direction are one kind of prepositions. They indicate
direction or movement toward something. It is difficult for us to use it
correctly use. Therefore, Vietnamese learners can’t avoid making mistakes
when using them.
Prepositions of direction and some errors made when using them
attracts my attention the most. Hence, the name of subject of my graduation
paper is “A study on prepositions of direction and some errors made by
Vietnamese learners”.
2
2. Aims of the study
This study is trying to answer the following:
Get the overview of preposition in general.
Point out the usage of common preposition of direction .
This study also indicates some Vietnamese learners’ errors made in
using prepositions of direction and some suggested solutions.
3. Scope of the study
Prepositions are a difficult part. Therefore, studying on prepositions is
not easy. Due to the limitation of time and knowledge, I have no ambition of
covering all kinds of preposition and research errors made by learners of all
countries in the word, but only prepositions of direction and some errors made
by Vietnamese learners.
4. Methods of the study
As I said in the scope of the study, its subject is quite interesting but
difficult so this study is written basing on many different sources.
In my study, I have collected information and images relating to the
subject of my paper from internet. In addition, reference books and
documents which contained knowledge of preposition are also valuable
sources that I searched for my topic.
After collecting enough information, I used interpretative methods to
synthesize the basic theories for the topic from many linguists. Then I carried
out the survey questionnaire among students in my university to get useful
and real data for the implication of my study.
3
Besides, discussing with my supervisor helps me to write this study
well. She has given helpful ideals and comments so that this study becomes
better and better.
5. Organization of the study
With a clear organization in which there are three main parts designed,
I hope that readers can easily read.
Part one is the introduction, including rationale, aim, scope, methods,
organization of the study.
Part two is the development, including three chapters
Chapter I is the theoretical background, which consists of preliminary theory
of preposition, classification of preposition.
Chapter II is prepositions of direction, which consist of what are prepositions
of direction, analysis some examples of preposition of direction, some typical
cases of preposition of direction.
Chapter III is some errors made by Vietnamese learners, findings and
implications.
Part three is the conclusion
4
PART II
DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER I: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
1. Preliminary theory of Preposition
1.1 What are prepositions?
Prepositions are words that show the relationship between the noun
which follows it and other words in the sentence. These relationships include:
place or position, direction, time, manner, and agent. Prepositions may be one
word or a prepositional phrase (such as “in front of”). They’re always
followed by a noun which is the “object” of the preposition. A preposition and
its object make up a prepositional phrase which typically functions as an
adjective.
(www.unenlightenedenglish.com/2009/04/grammar-guide-
prepositions)
(www.unenlightenedenglish.com/2009/04/grammar-guide-
prepositions)
5
The words at, in, of, on and to are examples of prepositions. A word
such as a noun, pronoun or gerund following a preposition is said to be the
object of the preposition. As pointed out previously, a personal pronoun
following a preposition must be in the objective case.
A phrase beginning with a preposition can be referred to as a
prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrases in the following examples
are underlined.
e.g. He owns the house on the corner.
We are waiting for her.
She has read many books about flying.
In the first example, the noun corner is the object of the preposition on.
In the second example, the personal pronoun her is the object of the
preposition for. It can be seen that the personal pronoun her is in the
objective case. In the third example, the gerund flying is the object of the
preposition about.
A preposition serves to connect its object with the rest of a sentence. In
doing so, a preposition indicates the relationship of the idea expressed in the
prepositional phrase to the ideas expressed In the rest of the sentence.
For instance in the sentence He owns the house on the corner, the
preposition on indicates that the words the corner express the location of the
house referred to in the rest of the sentence. Similarly, in the sentence We are
waiting for her, the preposition for indicates that the word her expresses the
reason for the action of waiting referred to in the rest of the sentence.
Although there are fewer than one hundred English prepositions, although
prepositions do not take endings, and although the structure of most
prepositional phrases is simple, the use of English prepositions is very
complex. The reasons for this are that most prepositions have more than one
meaning, many prepositions can also be used as adverbs, prepositions are
used in hundreds of idioms, many adjectives, nouns, and verbs must usually
6
be followed by certain prepositions, and there are hundreds of phrasal verbs
formed from combinations of verbs with adverbs and prepositions.
It should also be noted that the use of prepositions varies somewhat among
the different dialects of English. For instance, as illustrated in the following
example, there are some differences between British and North American
English in the use of prepositions.
E.g: British Usage: There is a fence about the garden.
American Usage: There is a fence around the garden
(www.testyourenglish.net/english-online/subjects/allpreps.html)
1.2. Functions of preposition:
1.2.1. Show the relation:
+) of a noun to a noun (or pronoun); the noun preceded by the preposition is
an attribute to another noun:
He is a man of honor.
The key to the golden box is locked.
+) of a noun to a noun (or pronoun) to an adjective; the noun preceded by the
preposition is either an object or an adverbial modifier:
Our country is rich in minerals.
He is free from care.
This knife is good for nothing.
He was red with anger.
She is tired from lack of sleep.
+) of a noun (or pronoun) to a verb; the noun preceded by the preposition is
either an object or an adverbial modifier:
She thought of her child very much.
I rely on you completely.
7
She did it with greatest ease.
He climbed up the big tree in the garden.
1.2.2. Show the relation of a whole clause to:
+) a verb or an adjective; the clause is an adjective clause:
He thought of how important her advice was.
She was surprised at what you said.
He was questioned about what he said.
+) a noun; the clause is an attribute clause:
Have you read his account of how he had worked.
Indicating the relations of nouns (or pronouns) to other words in the sentence,
preposition may show the character of those relations by their own lexical
meaning. The preposition to indicate direction or movement towards
something:
I go to the country every Sunday.
“Of” means: out of, from, about. ==> The table is made of wood. She spoke
of you.
“For” means: because of, in order to, therefore. ==> He was tired for want of
sleep. I am obliged to you for your kindness.
“By” means: near, along. ==> He drove by the house. She stood by the door
waiting for him.
But sometimes the lexical meaning of the preposition is weakened to
such an extent that the preposition becomes almost equivalent to a case
inflection. That process is termed “grammaticizing of prepositions”. Of, to,
by, with, often undergo that semantic decline.
8
There are words in English that can be used either as a preposition, an
adverb or a conjunction. The preposition governs an object, so it is always
related to a noun, a noun phrase, pronoun or gerund. An adverb particle
doesn’t govern an object, so it is more closely related to a verb ; a
conjunction is usually used to introduce a clause:
Eg: They talked about their studies and work. (preposition)
She has nothing to talk about. (adverb particle)
He has waited for her since 7:00. (preposition)
He came at 7:00 and has waited for her since. (adverb)
He has waited for her since he came at 7:00. (conjunction)
Many English prepositions have more or less the same meaning (that
causes problems for the learners):
Eg: beside / by / near / next to or above / on top of / over.
A single preposition in the students’ mother tongue may do the work of
several English prepositions:
Eg : at / in / on / to.
Some prepositions perform different functions:
Eg: At six o’clock. (time)
At the bank. (space, location)
2. Classification of prepositions
2.1. According to structural grammar
2.1.1. Simple Prepositions: at, by, in, on, to, above, under, along, across,
about, around, for, after, before
2.1.2. Compound Prepositions: within, without, out of, upon, into,
throughout, according to, except for,
9
2.1.3. Participial (converted from participle): concerning, during, past,
regarding, respecting, considering,:
Eg: I spoke with him concerning our lessons.
He did it well considering the difficulties he had to meet.
Regarding your statement, you have been mis-informed.
(www.unenlightenedenglish.com/2009/04/grammar-guide-
prepositions)
2.1.4. Phrase Prepositions (usually consisting of a noun preceded and
followed by prepositions): by means of (bằng phương tiện), in consequence
of (vì thế), on account of (vì, do, bởi), with regard to (liªn quan tới), in front
of, in spite of, with respect to (về, đối với)
Eg: With respect to your offer, I can not say anything definite yet.
The teacher can often, by means of rough chalk-drawings on the blackboard,
illustrate various things in the text.
(www.unenlightenedenglish.com/2009/04/grammar-guide-
prepositions)
2.2. According to function
2.2.1. Prepositions of Place
Prepositions of place show where an object is located in relation to something
else.
10
Using this image, we can see how certain prepositions of place work.
Using the circle as a reference point, we can see:
The black text is in/inside the circle. (“In” means “surrounded
by” the reference point)
The dark blue line is leaning against the circle. (“Against” means
“touching” the reference point for an extended length.)
The green point is at the edge of the circle. (“At” means
“touching” the reference point at a particular spot.)
The dark red line is on the circle. (“On” means “placement on
the surface,” generally the top, of the reference point.)
The orange line is over the circle. (“Over” means “higher than”
the point of reference.)
The light blue text is below/under the circle. (“Below” means
“under” the reference point.)
11
2.2.2. Prepositions of Direction
Prepositions of Direction illustrate paths of travel or motion.
Using the black square as the reference point, we can see
The green line goes into the square. (“Into” means something
starts on the outside of, then “enters” the reference point.)
The yellow line goes through the square. (“Through” means
something starts outside the reference point, enters it, and exits it from
another side.)
The blue line goes across the square. (“Across” means
something starts at the reference point, and ends at the opposite side of
it.)
The red circle goes around the square. (“Around” means
something starts outside the reference point, and travels near the
reference point without entering it.)
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2.2.3. Prepositions of Time
Prepositions of time help us differentiate if something is at a point in
time or for a length of time. (P.S. There is no fun image for this!)
Points in time:
In: used for months, years, seasons, or parts of a day. (In 2009,
In the summer, In the morning)
At: used for a more specific point in tim

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