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In the process of implementing this graduation paper, I have to face to many difficulties. But
thanks to the help and guidance of many people, I overcame all troubles and completed my
graduation paper.
First of all, I do want to express may grateful thanks to Mrs Tran Thi Ngoc Lien – my supervisor
for her encouragement and guidance. During my study process, she has willingly and readily
suggested and given me valuable advice and detail comments about my study.
Furthermore, never can I forget the help and enthusiastic guidance of teachers in foreign
language department. It’s them that have led me through lectures during four year. Thank to that
knowledge background, I could select this topic and fulfill my study.
Last but not least, I am really grateful to may family and friends for their serious support and
encouragement.

de_tai_a_study_on_subject_verb_agreement

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
——————————-
ISO 9001 : 2008
KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP
NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ
HẢI PHÒNG – 2009
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
GRADUATION PAFER
A study on subject – verb agreement
By:
Phạm Vân Anh
Class:
NA902
Supervisor:
Trần Thị Ngọc Liên
HAI PHONG – 2009
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
Sinh viên: ……………………………………………………Mã số:……………………….
Lớp: ………………………..Ngành:…………………………………………………………..
Tên đề tài: …………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………..
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
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2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
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3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp.
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CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày……….tháng …….năm 200
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày…….tháng………năm 200
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày …… tháng……..năm 200
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt nghiệp:
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2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra trong
nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số liệu):
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3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ):
..
..
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Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. năm 2009
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký)
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài liệu,
số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………. tháng……… năm 2009
Người chấm phản biện
Acknowledgements
In the process of implementing this graduation paper, I have to face to many difficulties. But
thanks to the help and guidance of many people, I overcame all troubles and completed my
graduation paper.
First of all, I do want to express may grateful thanks to Mrs Tran Thi Ngoc Lien – my supervisor
for her encouragement and guidance. During my study process, she has willingly and readily
suggested and given me valuable advice and detail comments about my study.
Furthermore, never can I forget the help and enthusiastic guidance of teachers in foreign
language department. It’s them that have led me through lectures during four year. Thank to that
knowledge background, I could select this topic and fulfill my study.
Last but not least, I am really grateful to may family and friends for their serious support and
encouragement.
Hai phong, June 2009
Pham Van Anh
Symbol and abbreviation
S Subject
V Verb
O Object
Od Direct object
Oi Indirect object
A Adverbial
C Complement
E.x Example
Table of contents
Acknowledgement
Symbols and abbreviation
Part I : Introduction
1. Rationale ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
2. Aim of the study ……………………………………………………………………………………… 1
3. Scope of the study …………………………………………………………………………………… 2
4. Method of the study …………………………………………………………………………………. 2
5. Design of the study ………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Part 2: Development
Chapter 1: theoretical background …………………………………………………………….. 4
I. English sentence ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4
1. Definition of English sentence …………………………………………………………………. .4
2. Kinds of sentence ……………………………………………………………………………………. 5
2.1 Traditional division ……………………………………………………………………………….. 5
2.2 Quirk’s division …………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
3. Sentence element …………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
3.1 Subject …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
3.2 Verb …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
3.4 Complement …………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
3.5 Adverbial ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
II Subject …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
1 Definition ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
2. Part of speech function as subject …………………………………………………………… 11
III. Verb …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
1. Definition ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
2. Classification ………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
IV. Agreement ………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
1. Definition ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
2. Kind of agreement ……………………………………………………………………………….. 13
Chapter 2: Subject – verb Agreement …………………………………………………….. 15
I. Noun ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
1. Single noun …………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
1.1 Basic single noun ……………………………………………………………………………….. 15
1.2 Collective noun ………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
2. Coordinated in form of noun …………………………………………………………………. 18
2.1 Coordination with “and”, “both…and” …………………………………………………. 18
2.2 Coordination with “or”, “either…or”, “neither…nor”,
“not only…but also” ……………………………………………………………………………….. 19
2.3 Coordination with “as well as”, “along with”, “rather than”,
“together with” ………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
3. Noun as an expression of quantity …………………………………………………………. .20
3.1 Noun expressing number …………………………………………………………………….. 20
3.2 Noun expressing fraction and percentage ………………………………………………. 21
4. Denominal subject ………………………………………………………………………………. .22
4.1 Nominal clause ………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
4.2 Non-finite clause……………………………………………………………………………….. .22
II. Pronoun ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
1. Personal pronoun …………………………………………………………………………………. 23
2. Relative pronoun. ……………………………………………………………………………….. .26
3. Indefinite pronoun ……………………………………………………………………………….. 28
Chapter 3: Problems possibly encountered by non – native learners
When dealing with subject – verb agreement ……………………………………………. 32
I. Problems possibly encountered by non – native learners …………………………….. 32
1. Subject – related errors. …………………………………………………………………………. 32
1.1. Errors caused by plural form of head noun …………………………………………….. 32
1.2. Errors caused by words coming between nouns and verbs ………………………. 32
2 Confusion over singular and plural …………………………………………………………… 33
2.1. Because of cardinal number …………………………………………………………………. 33
2.2. Because of contextual meaning and coordinators ……………………………………. 34
2.3. Because of antecedent replaced by relative pronouns ………………………………. 35
2.4. Because of each structure’s requirement ………………………………………………… 35
3. Irregularities………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
3.1. Fields of study that end in “-ics ” …………………………………………………………. .36
3.2. Certain illness that ends in “-s” ……………………………………………………………. .37
3.3. Name of the games ending in “s”. ……………………………………………………….. . 38
3.4. Plural form of collective nouns ……………………………………………………………. 38
3.5. Existential sentence …………………………………………………………………………….. 39
3.6. “The + adj” as noun phrase ………………………………………………………………….. 39
3.7. Title of works, company names …………………………………………………………… 40
3.8. Foreign nouns ……………………………………………………………………………………. .40
3.8.1 Nouns ending in “us”, “es” is added or “us” is changed into “i”41
3.8.2 Nouns ending in “um”, “s” is added or “um” is changed into
“a” …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
3.8.3 Nouns ending in “is”, “is” is change into “es” ……………………………………… .43
3.8.4 Nouns ending in “on”, “subject” is added or “on” is changed
into “a” ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 43
II Sugessions to overcome problems ……………………………………………………………. 43
Part 3: Conclusion ……………………………………………………….. 45
Reference …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
Appendix. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. .47
Part I : Introduction
1. Rationale
Language is an essential means of communication. Without language, people are unable to
express their thoughts, their ideals, and inform to others. Moreover, English becomes the most
popular language all over the world. Day by day, English express its role in society, and in
tightening relations between people in global.
In order to be a master of English, we need a good background of grammar. Actually, I approach
English since I was at my junior secondary school. There were certainly a variety of grammatical
structures to be fully grasped before we would like to use English effectively. At that time, the
major difficulty facing me in particular and all pupils in general was how to conjugate verb
correctly. We confused to make subject and verb agreement because of various types of subject
and other irregular rules. This reason urges me to study this theme : subject – verb agreement.
I hope that my study will help all students and pupils deal this problem easily and fell that
English grammar is no longer difficult.
2. Aims of the study
Any research all have their own purposes. Anyone who studies any fields all aims at certain
achievements. As many other students, this research also have certain aims, that is:
– Systemizing subject – verb agreement to have a research on this matter as full as
possible, from then helping particularly new beginners to study this more easily and
successfully;
– Giving problems and irregularities when dealing with topic : subject – verb agreement;
– Suggesting certain effective solutions to deal with the problems caused by subject-verb
agreement
3. Scope of the study
Agreement, or in other word, concord in English is a very wide theme. Beside subject – verb
agreement, there are concords between sentence elements like subject – subject complement
concord, object – object complement concord, etc. However, due to the limitation of time and
ability, in this research proposal, I just study the subject – verb agreement and learner’s problems
when dealing with this theme.
4. Methods of the study
To achieve the above mentioned aims, the researcher has combined different research methods in
her study.
First, data corpus are collected from different reliable sources such as books, authorized
websites. The data are mainly about the cases when subject and verb concord is presented and
performex.
Second, statistic analysis is used via survey questionnaires and informal interview in order to
find out the common problems often encountered by non-native learners regarding subject-verb
agreement.
Further more, analysis are made into irregularities which often hinder the learners in the
approach to subject-verb agreement.
Finally, experimental analysis method is made use. During class hours, examples or cases of
subject-verb concord is shown as compulsory exercise so that the students can work on them,
which help to figure out what common problems they may face and how they can deal with the
problems.
5. Design of the study
A table of contents with page numbers in which they are presented will help the readers have a
clear overview of the research proposal. It also helps readers to find the part they need more
easily and quickly.
Part I namely “Introduction” consists of rationale of the study, aims of the study, scope of the
study, method of the study, and the design of the study.
Part II called “Development” contains three chapters:
Chapter 1, the theoretical background, deals with definition of English sentence, sentence
elements, subject and verb.
Chapter 2 is the main part which analyses types of subject affecting to subject – verb
agreement.
Chapter 3 shows a lot of learner’s problems and irregularities when dealing with this theme
Part IIIt is “conclusion” which restates all the presented information
Part II: Development
Chapter one: Theoretical background
I. English sentence
1. Definition of English sentence
You have used sentences all your life to communicate ideas. However, you may not have paid
close attention to how sentences are correctly and effectively written. There are different ways to
define a sentence but we’d prefer a traditional grammar – based definition: “sentence is the
largest meaningful unit of grammar, consisting of a subject and a predicate.
The subject answers the question “who/ what” is sentence about? And the predicate answers the
question what does the sentence say about? The order of the sentence vary according to types of
sentence (statement, question, request, etc)
A sentence conveys a complete meaning or idea serving a definite purpose of communication.
[1] David looks intelligent
(Stating an opinion)
[2] My bicycle has broken down
(Stating a fact)
[3] Do you know that man?
(Asking a question)
[4] Can you help me?
(Asking a favor)
[Nguyen Van An, 2003:636]
According to Oxford Advanced learner’s dictionary, sentence is “the highest unit of grammar,
usually containing a subject, an object, a verb, etc, and expressing a statement, question, or
command”. For example:
[5] It is raining tomorrow
[6] Many scientists believe there is a major earthquake in California in the next few years
[7] What place have you been to since you came to this city
[8] Put it in the desk
[9] Let me show you a way to escape
[AS Hornby, 1948:1715]
2. Kinds of sentence.
2.1 Traditional division
In many traditional grammars, three major sentence types are distinguished:
– Simple sentence: a simple sentence is one independent clause
[10] I enjoy playing tennis with my friend every weekend.
[11] I enjoy playing tennis and looking forward to it every weekend.
[Tran Thi Ngoc Lien, 2003: 7]
Notice that the second sentence has two verbs, but this is called compound verb not compound
sentence.
– Compound sentence: compound sentence is two or more independent clause joined together.
Each clause is of equal important and could stand alone. There are three ways to join
independent clauses to form a compound sentence.
+ With a coordinator:
[12] I enjoy playing football, but I hate playing baseball.
[Tran Thi Ngoc Lien, 2003: 8]
[13] I enjoy playing football, however, I hate playing baseball
[Tran Thi Ngoc Lien, 2003: 8]
+ With a semicolon:
[14] I enjoy playing football; I have playing football.
[Tran Thi Ngoc Lien, 2003: 8]
– Complex sentence: contain one independent clause and one dependent cla

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