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No one denies the importance of English language in the present time as
a global language. It is maybe the only language that truly links the whole
world together. English appears in all fields of life such as: business,
education, healthcare, culture, so on. There is no doubt that, the English is
language of communication between the people with d ifferent cultures. Also
one of the reasons that contributed to the spread of English is that, it is the
language of the modern era. Where the people use it in various fields of life
such as, economy, e-commerce, medicine and aviation. In addition, it is the
language which is used in the tourism and travel. Together with the
dramatical development of international tourism, Viet Nam has many
remarkable achievements these years. According to Viet Nam General
Department of Tourism, in 2011, the number of tourists visiting Viet Nam
was over 9 million tourists, a rise of 1.012% compared with 2010. With rich
and attractive natural resources, typical culture and stable economy, Viet Nam
has a lot of potential to develop tourism and attract domestic and foreign
tourists

de_tai_a_study_on_terminology_in_translating_travel_contract

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1
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
——————————-
ISO 9001 : 2008
KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP
NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ
HẢI PHÒNG – 2012
2
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVERSITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
GRADUATION PAPER
A STUDY ON TERMINOLOGY IN TRANSLATING
TRAVEL CONTRACTS FROM ENGLISH INTO
VIETNAMESE
By:
LÊ THU TRANG
Class:
NA1202
Supervisor:
MRS.HOÀNG THỊ BẢY, M.A
HAI PHONG – 2012
3
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
Sinh viên: ……………………………………………………Mã số:……………………….
Lớp: ………………………..Ngành:…………………………………………………………..
Tên đề tài: …………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………..
4
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt
nghiệp
( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
..
..
..
..
..
2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
..
..
..
..
..
3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp.
..
..
..
5
CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày 12 tháng 04 năm 2010
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày 10 tháng 07 năm 2010
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2010
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
6
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt
nghiệp:
..
..
..
..
..
2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra
trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số
liệu):
..
..
..
..
..
..
3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ):
..
..
..
Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. năm 2010
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký)
7
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích
tài liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………. tháng……… năm
Người chấm phản biện
8
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
PART I: INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………. 1
1. Rationale of the study ……………………………………………………………………. 2
2. Aims of the study …………………………………………………………………………. 2
3. Scope of the study ………………………………………………………………………… 2
4. Method of the study ……………………………………………………………………… 2
5. Design of the study ……………………………………………………………………….. 3
PART II: DEVELOPMENT ……………………………………………………………… 4
CHAPTER I: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF TRANSLATION … 4
I. Definition of translation …………………………………………………………………. 4
II. Types of translation ……………………………………………………………………… 6
II.1 Word to word ……………………………………………………………………………. 6
II.2 Literal translation ………………………………………………………………………. 7
II.3 Faithful translation …………………………………………………………………….. 7
II.4 Semantic translation ………………………………………………………………….. 7
II.5 Free translation …………………………………………………………………………. 8
II.6 Adaption ………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
II.7 Idiomatic translation ………………………………………………………………….. 8
II.8 Communicative translation …………………………………………………………. 9
III. Equivalence in translation …………………………………………………………… 9
IV. ESP in translation ……………………………………………………………………….. 10
IV.1 Concept ………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
IV.2 Types of ESP …………………………………………………………………………… 11
IV.3 Definition of technical translation ……………………………………………… 13
V. Terminology and Travel contract terms …………………………………………. 13
1. Definition of English terms ……………………………………………………………. 13
2.Characteristics of terms ………………………………………………………………….. 15
2.1. Accurateness ……………………………………………………………………………… 15
9
2.2. Systematism ……………………………………………………………………………… 15
2.3. Internationalism …………………………………………………………………………. 16
2.4. Nationalism ………………………………………………………………………………. 16
2.5. Popularity …………………………………………………………………………………. 16
3. The creation of terminology …………………………………………………………… 17
4. The distinction terms & words ……………………………………………………….. 18
5.Terms in travel contract field ………………………………………………………….. 18
5.1. Definition …………………………………………………………………………………. 18
5.2. Classification of travel contract terms …………………………………………. 19
5.2.1. Single terms ……………………………………………………………………………. 19
5.2.2. Compound terms …………………………………………………………………….. 20
CHAPTER II: SOME STRATEGIES APPLIED IN TRANSLATION OF
SOME COMMON TRAVEL CONTRACT TERMS …………………………… 22
I. The strategy applied in translation of single terms …………………………….. 22
1. General single terms ……………………………………………………………………… 23
2. Single terms with suffixes “er”, “or”, “tion ……………………………………… 24
II.The strategies applied in translation of compound terms ……………………. 25
II.1 Shift or transposition translation ………………………………………………….. 25
II.1.1 Automatic translation ………………………………………………………………. 25
II.1.2 Rank-shift translation ………………………………………………………………. 30
II.2 Translation by omission ………………………………………………………………. 31
II.3 Translation by addition ……………………………………………………………….. 32
II.4 Translation by paraphrase using related words ………………………………. 33
II.5 Translation by using a loan word ………………………………………………… 34
CHAPTER III. IMPLICATION ………………………………………………………… 37
I.Some problems in translation process ………………………………………………. 37
I.1. Misunderstanding ………………………………………………………………………. 37
I.2. Difficulties ………………………………………………………………………………. 38
II.Some suggestions to solve the problems ………………………………………….. 39
PART III. CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………… 40
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REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………….. 41
APPENDIX ……………………………………………………………………………………. 43
11
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my
supervisor, Mrs Hoang Thi Bay (M. A) who from the beginning to the end,
helped me to finish this paper with valuable instructions and precious
materials. The success I got through last time would be almost impossible
without her enthusiastic supports.
My sincere thanks also go to other teachers who have always been
most willing to give me precious suggestions and reference books.
Last but not least, I would like to give heartfelt thanks to my family
and friends who I have never enough words to express my great gratitude for
encouragement, support and help.
Hai Phong, 2012
Student
Le Thu Trang
12
PART I: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale of the study
No one denies the importance of English language in the present time as
a global language. It is maybe the only language that truly links the whole
world together. English appears in all fields of life such as: business,
education, healthcare, culture, so on. There is no doubt that, the English is
language of communication between the people with different cultures. Also
one of the reasons that contributed to the spread of English is that, it is the
language of the modern era. Where the people use it in various fields of life
such as, economy, e-commerce, medicine and aviation. In addition, it is the
language which is used in the tourism and travel. Together with the
dramatical development of international tourism, Viet Nam has many
remarkable achievements these years. According to Viet Nam General
Department of Tourism, in 2011, the number of tourists visiting Viet Nam
was over 9 million tourists, a rise of 1.012% compared with 2010. With rich
and attractive natural resources, typical culture and stable economy, Viet Nam
has a lot of potential to develop tourism and attract domestic and foreign
tourists. A number of Vietnamese learners get trouble in translating
terminology in travel contracts; certainly face difficulties in the translation
process due to not only the variety of Vietnamese and English words, the
differences of using specific English words but also more and more
appearances of new terms in human activities. That is the main reason
inspiring me to carry out this study. Importantly, I hope that to some extent
my study can offer a thorough understanding about terminology in travel
contracts as well as help Vietnamese in translation of this field terms.
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2. Aims of the study
My study aims at:
Introducing theoretical background of translation, terminology,
translation methods.
Giving some strategies applied in translation of terminology in travel
contracts.
Pointing out some difficulties, common mistakes possibly in the
translation process made by Vietnamese learners and suggesting some
solutions to avoid misunderstanding when translating it.
3. Scope of the study
Travel contracts terms are extremely large of the study. Due to the
limitation of time, knowledge and experiences, I am not ambitious to study all
masters of this theme but only focus on translation theory and give some
strategies to apply to translate terminology in travel contracts terms.
4. Methods of the study
In order to achieve the mentioned aims, in my study process, the following
methods are employed:
Data collection: Reading books and reference books about translation,
terminology and English travel contracts to establish the theoretical
background for my study, searching books on the internet and collecting
information from foreign websites.
Data analysis: Selecting related document and classifying information in
terms of the aims of the study.
Comparative and contrastive analysis: Analyzing the above classified
information, arranging the information into the parts of the study.
14
5. Design of the study
My study is divided into three main parts of which the second one is the most
important.
Part I: Introduction – gives out rationale, aims, scope, methods and
design of the study.
Part II: Development: mentions the main contents of the study and it is
further divided into three chapters as below:
 Chapter I: Theoretical background _ introduces definition of translation,
translation methods.
 Chapter II: Terminology, some analysis, comparison, contrast-points out
some strategies applied in the translation of terminology in travel contract
terms.
 Chapter III: Implication-points out some problems in translation process
and gives some suggestions to solve the problems.
Part III: Conclusion-gives main ideas mentioned in previous parts and
some suggestions for further study.
15
PART II: DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER I:THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
I. Definition of translation
Translation has existed in every corner of our life. It is considered as an
indispensable part in the field of not only literature, culture and religion but
also commercial advertisement, popular entertainment, public
administration, and education .Some of the translation scholars defined
their theories as source-oriented theories, others regarded them as the target-
oriented theories. Thus, definitions of translation are numerous and a large
numbers of writers have written about this subject .In this paper, some
various concepts of translation have been collected as follows:
Translation is the comprehension of the meaning of a text and the
subsequent production of an equivalent text, likewise called a “translation”
that communicates the same message in another language. The text that is
translated is called the “source text”, and the language that it is translated
into is called the “target language”. The product is sometimes called the
“target text”.
_
Translation is the process of changing something that is written or
spoken into another language.
_ Advanced Oxford Dictionary_
Translation as the expression in another language (target language) of
what has been expressed in one language (source language), preserving
semantic and stylistic equivalencies, Translation is the replacement of a
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representation of a text in one language by a representation of an equivalent
text in a second language.
_Roger T.Bell, 1991_
Translation is rendering a written text into another language in a way
that the author intended the text.
_Bui Tien Bao_Ha Noi National University_
Translation is the replacement of text material of this language (source
language) with text material of another (target language).
_ Cartford, 1965: 20_
Translation is the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one
language (the source text) and the production, in another language of a
equivalent text (the target text) that communicates the same message
_ E.A. Nida, 1959_
Translation is the process of communication in which the translator is
interposed between a transmitter and a receiver who use different languages
to carry out code of conversation between them.
_Tanke, 1975_
Translation will be understood as the final product of problem solving
and sign production of a receptor-text (RT) functionally equivalent to a source
text (ST) by a human being in a given language for a given group of text
receivers.
_Diaz-Diacaretz, 1985_
Translation is a text with qualities of equivalence to a prior text in
another language, such that the new text is taken as a substitute for the
original.
_ David Frank (WordPress.com) _
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Translation is a process of communication whose objective is to
import the knowledge of the original to the foreign reader.
_Levy (1967:148) _
Translation is the transformation of a text originally in one language
into an equivalent in the content of the message and the formal features and
the roles of the original
_Bell, 1991_
Translation is made possible by an equivalent of thought that lies
behind its different verbal expressions
_Savory, 1968_
Translation is to be understood as the process whereby a message
expressed in a specific source language is linguistically transformed in order
to be understood by readers of the target language”
_ Houbert (1998:1) _
Translation is an act of communication which attempts to relay, across
cultural and linguistic boundaries, another act of communication.
_ Hatim and Mason (1997:1) _
II.Types of translation
II.1 Word to word
This is often demonstrated as interlinear translation, with the TL
immediately below the SL words. The SL word-order is preserved and the
words translated singly by their most common meaning, out of context.
Source language : I am a student at Hai Phong Private University.
Target language : Tôi là sinh viên trường đại học Dân Lập Hải Phòng.
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II.2 Literal translation
The SL grammatical construction is converted to the nearest TL
equivalents but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context.
Source language : The project was implemented thank to the assistance of
the United States.
Target language : Dự án này được thực hiện nhờ sự giúp đỡ của Mỹ.
II.3 Faithful translation:
The translation reproduces the exact contextual meaning of the original
within the constraints of the grammatical structures of the target language. It
transfers cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical
deviation from SL norms. It attempts to be completely faithful to the
intentions and the text-reality of the SL writer.
Source language: Today the Vietnamese are, almost no exception,
extremely friendly to Western visitors.
Target language: Ngày nay, người Việt Nam, gần như không có ngoại lệ,
đều rất thân thiện với du khách phương Tây.
(Text book for Translation 1_Hai Phong Private University)
II.4 Semantic translation
Semantic translation differs from faithful translation only in as far as it
must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, compromising
on “meaning” where appropriate so that no assonance, word-play or repetition
jars in finished version.
S

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