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As we all know that English is increasingly becoming the international
language and communication, most fields use foreign languages especially
English. However, each field has own terms. To understand these terms is not
easy else. Translators sometimes have difficulties in translating and
expressing. Technical field is one of fields used English much more. Almost
equipments, machines or assembly lines are instructed by English. It is
difficult to operate, install and repair equipment exactly.
Translating technical texts is quite difficult, it requires translators to
translate specialized terms exactly. So, translators have a deeply knowledge in
technical field. In technical texts, there are some loan terms orginated from
Latin, it is not restricted clearly between the terminology and the general
words because of its polysemantic.

de_tai_a_study_on_the_translation_of_technical_terms_from_en

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HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
ISO 9001 : 2008
GRADUATION PAPER
A STUDY ON THE TRANSLATION OF TECHNICAL TERMS FROM
ENGLISH INTO VIETNAMESE
By: Bïi Thu Hµ
Class: NA 1001
Supervisor: NguyÔn ThÞ Hoa M.A
HAI PHONG – 2010
Tờ 2
Tờ 1
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
Sinhviên:……………………………………………………Mã số:……………………..
Lớp:………………………..Ngành:……………………………………………………….
Tên đề tài :………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
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Tờ 3
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt
nghiệp ( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
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2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
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3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp.
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Tờ 4
CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày 12 tháng 04 năm 2010
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày 10 tháng 07 năm 2010
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2010
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
Tờ 5
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt
nghiệp:
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2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra
trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số
liệu):
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3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ):
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Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. năm 2010
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký)
Tờ 6
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về mặt thu thập và phân tích tài liệu,
số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lý luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………tháng……..năm 2010
Người chấm phản biện
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
PART I : INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………….. 1
I. Rationale …………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
II. Research restriction and application ………………………………………………. 1
III.Methods of the study ……………………………………………………………………… 2
V.Design of the study ………………………………………………………………………….. 2
PART II: DEVELOPMENT ……………………………………………………………….. 3
Chapter 1: Theoretical background …………………………………………………….. 3
1.Translation ………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
1.1 Definition of translation …………………………………………………………………… 3
1.2. Definition of equivalence in translation …………………………………………….. 4
1.3 Types of translation …………………………………………………………………………. 4
2. ESP in translation. ………………………………………………………………………….. 6
2.1 Definition of ESP …………………………………………………………………………… 6
2.2 Types of ESP …………………………………………………………………………………. 8
2.3 Definition of technical translation ……………………………………………………… 9
2.4 Translation in the area of technical terms …………………………………………. 10
Chapter 2: Some strategies in translating technical terminology. ……….. 11
Definition of terminology …………………………………………………………………… 11
The creation of terminology ………………………………………………………………. 12
The distinction between terms and words …………………………………………. 12
I. Typical features of technical terminology ……………………………………….. 13
1. Accuracy ………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
2. Internationalism ………………………………………………………………………………. 14
3. Systematic ……………………………………………………………………………………… 14
4. Nationalism ……………………………………………………………………………………. 14
5. Popularity ………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
II. Structural features ……………………………………………………………………….. 16
1. Single terms and Neologisms ………………………………………………………….. 16
1.1 Single terms ………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Sub-technical terms …………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Highly technical terms ………………………………………………………………………… 17
1.2 Neologism ……………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Eponymy …………………………………………………………………………………………… 18
Acronyms ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
2. Compound terms …………………………………………………………………………… 18
-Nominal group ………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
Terms consist of: Past participle +noun ………………………………………………… 20
Terms consist of gerund+ noun …………………………………………………………….. 20
Terms consist of noun+gerund …………………………………………………………….. 20
Terms consist of : noun+Past participleI+thing ………………………………………. 20
-Noun phrase ……………………………………………………………………………………… 20
Terms consist of: noun+ noun ………………………………………………………………. 20
Terms consist of : Adj+noun ………………………………………………………………… 20
Terms consist of : Adj+Adj ………………………………………………………………….. 20
Terms consist of thing+quantifier ………………………………………………………… 21
Terms consist of : Acronyms+ noun. …………………………………………………….. 21
III. Some strategies in translating technical terminology ……………………. 22
Chapter 3: The translation of technical terms into Vietnamese ………….. 28
1. Single terms & Neologism ……………………………………………………………… 28
2. Compound terms …………………………………………………………………………… 32
PART III: CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………… 37
REFERENCE …………………………………………………………………………………… 38
GLOSSARY ……………………………………………………………………………………… 40
1
PART I
INTRODUCTION
I. Rationale
As we all know that English is increasingly becoming the international
language and communication, most fields use foreign languages especially
English. However, each field has own terms. To understand these terms is not
easy else. Translators sometimes have difficulties in translating and
expressing. Technical field is one of fields used English much more. Almost
equipments, machines or assembly lines are instructed by English. It is
difficult to operate, install and repair equipment exactly.
Translating technical texts is quite difficult, it requires translators to
translate specialized terms exactly. So, translators have a deeply knowledge in
technical field. In technical texts, there are some loan terms orginated from
Latin, it is not restricted clearly between the terminology and the general
words because of its polysemantic.
For the students who studying English, especially students of scientific
and technology, it is difficult to study technical English. With complex
construction such as passive voice, impersonal of verbs, sometimes we can
see the sentences has not predictation or subject. To help English students and
technical students understand technical terms clearly and translate these terms
exactly, I choose this topic in my graduation.
II. Research restriction and application.
During the time of my research, I have met many technical terms. It
actually benefits me in life and probably contributes to my decision in the
career in the future. Due to the limitation of timeframe and knowledge, in this
graduation paper, I can only introduce the translation of the technical terms in
the electrical engineering which deals with the design , frabrication and
2
operation of electronic devices and system. Besides, some terms of technical
fields will be displayed in the glossary.
My research can be valuable for the teachers and students of Foreign
Languages Department. Moreover, it may be also an useful reference
document to whom is studying in the electrical engineering and is working at
the electric power plants.
III. Methods of the study
All the pesentations and analyses of this graduation paper are based on
materials collected from different sources. All the publications such as books,
works of research are used as the source of provding theoretical background
for my study. Methods which are deployed to collect material include: reading
and collecting material from books, internet; consulting supervisor; and the
help of friends.
IV. Design of the study
This study consists of three parts:
Part I is an introduction which includes rationale, reseach restriction and
application, methods of study.
Part II is the development and is also the most important part.
It has three main chapters:
Chapter 1 The theoretical background.
Chapter 2 Some strategies in translating technical terminology
Chapter 3 The translation of technical terms into Vietnamese
Part III. Is the conclusion of the whole study
3
PART II:
DEVELOPMENT
Chapter 1: Theoretical background
1. Translation
1.1. Definition
There are many ways to definite translation. Herein after is some typical
definitions:
Translation is the replacement of a representation of a text in one
language by a representation of an equivalent text in a second language.(
Roger T.Bell).
Translation is rending a written text into another language in a way that
the author intended the text.( Bui Tien Bao- Hanoi National University).
Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the
subsequent production of an equivalent text, like wise called a “translation”
that communicates the same message in another language. The text to be
translated is called the “source text”, and the language that it is to translate
into is called the “target language”; the final product is sometimes called the
“target text”.(by http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/translation)
Translation is the process of changing something that is written or
spoken into another language. (By Advanced Oxford Dictionary)
Translation is an act of communication which attempts to relay, across
cultural and linguistic boundaries, another act of communication. Hatim and
Mason (1997;1)
4
1.2. Definition of equivalence in translation.
Equivalence-oriented translation is a procedure which replicates the
same situation as in the original, whilst using completely different wording.(
Vinery and Darbelnet)
Translation equivalence exists between forms in a source language and
a target language if their meaning matches. In other words, translation
equivalence should answer the question “What do the speakers of this
language actually say to express the desired meaning?” (Wayne Leman
worldpress.com)
Equivalence, when applied to the issue of translation, is an abstract
concept and actually refers to the equivalence relationship between the source
text and the target text.( Asian Social Sience (CCSE)
1.3 Types of translation
Translation can be devided into 8 types as bellow:
Word-to-word translation
This is often demonstrated as interlinear translation, with the TL
immediately below the SL words. The SL word-order is preserved and the
words translated singly by their most common meaning, out of context.
Literal translation
The SL grammatical construction is converted to the nearest TL
equivalents but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context.
Faithful translation
A faithful translation attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of
the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures
5
Semantic translation
Semantic translation differs from faithful translation only in as far as it must
take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, compromising on
“meaning” where appropriate so that no assonance, word-play or repetition
jars in finished version.
Free translation
Free translation reproduces the matter without the manner, or the content
with out of the form of the original. The advantage of this type of translation
is that the text in TL sounds more natural. On the contrary, the disadvantage
is that translating is too casual to understand the original because of its
freedom.
Adaption
This is the “freest” form of translation. It is used mainly for plays and
themes The SL culture is converted into the Tl culture and is rewritten.
Idiomatic translation
Idiomatic translation reproduces the “message” of the original but tends to
distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and the idiom where
these do not exists in the original.
Communicative translation
Communicative translation attempts to reader the exact contextual meaning
of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily
acceptable and comprehensible to the readership.
6
2. Translation in ESP
2.1 Definition of ESP
There is a great number of definitions of ESP because people have given
different emphases to the variety of elements. One may hold that the age of
the learners is a main factor, but another agures that the purpose of the
learners the most important one. Thus, the definition of ESP may be grouped
into three categories focussing on age, time, and purpose.
The first element is the time available. Fitzijohn Robinson (1980;9) notes
that:
“The very concept of “Special purpose” implies that foreign language
study is a subsidiary contribution to another, main interest, and that there will
normally be pressure to achieve the required level of linguistics competence
in the minimum of time”.
The second important factor is that of age. Most learners of ESP are
adults or near adults. This is obvious when English for Occupational Purposes
is considered. This type of ESP is for people who are in jobs or about to take
up employment.
“The number of people wanting to learn English for Specific Purposes is
spiralling. By and large these people have been students in tertiary education,
and adults”. Robinson (1980;9).
The third factor is the learner’s purposes. This is the most important
element of ESP, so Brumfit (1997;71) states that
“First, it is clear that an ESP course is directly concerned with the
purposes for which learners need English, purposes which are usually
expressed in functional terms. ESP thus fits firmly within the general
movement towards “communicative” teaching of the last decade or so”.
7
This definition implies two things : (1) the broad meaning of the terms
“purposes”, and (2) the method of teaching/ learning for these purposes.
ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decision as to
content and method are based on the learner’s reason for learning. Hutchinson
(1987;19).
ESP is the abbreviation for English for Specific Purpose. It is defined in
the other ways. Some people described ESP as simply being the teaching of
English for any purpose that could be specified. Others, however, were more
precise, describing it as the teaching of English used in academic studies or
the teaching of English for vocational or professional purposes.
Tony Dudley-Evans, co-editor of the ESP Journal gives an extended
definition of ESP in terms of ‘absolute’ and ‘variable’ characteristics (see
below).
Definition of ESP Dudley-Evans (1997)
Absolute Characteristics
1. ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learners
2. ESP makes use of underlying methodology and activities of the discipline it
serves.
3. ESP is centered on the language appropriate to these activities in terms of
grammar, lexis, register, study skills, discourse and genre.
Variable Characteristics
1.ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines
2. ESP may use, in specific teaching situations, a different methodology from
that of General English
3. ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners, either at a tertiary level
institution or in a professional work situation. It could, however, be for
learners at secondary school

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