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Though English is not the most widely spoken language in the world,it is the
world‟s most prominent language in business,education,communication It
has been estimated that more than 350 million people speak English all over
the world.When you look at the importance of English for international
business,you must look more than just the number of people who speak it and
what the language is used for.
In the 21st century,many companies have discovered that they can cut their
costs of production by sending their jobs oversea.Some have also found that
thet can save money by bringing immigrants into the country on work
visas.For someone living in the country where English is not the native
language,they will need to master this language in order to find a good job in
United States or England.

de_tai_a_study_on_the_translation_of_technical_terms_in_the

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
——————————-
ISO 9001 : 2008
KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP
NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ
HẢI PHÒNG – 2010
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
GRADUATION PAPER
A study on the translation of technical terms in the
interface of common business websites and theirs
Vietnamese equivalent
By:
NGUYỄN ĐỨC MẠNH
Class:
NA 1002
Supervisor:
TRẦN THỊ NGỌC LIÊN, M.A.
HAI PHONG – 2010
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
Sinh viên: ………………………………………………Mã số: ………………………….
Lớp……………………….Ngành:…………………………………………………………..
Tên đề tài:
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt
nghiệp
( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
..
..
..
..
..
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..
..
2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
..
..
..
..
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..
..
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3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp.
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CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên: ……………………………………………………………………………………..
Học hàm, học vị: ……………………………………………………………………………
Cơ quan công tác: ……………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn: ………………………………………………………………………
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên: ………………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị: …………………………………………………………………………….
Cơ quan công tác: ……………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn: ………………………………………………………………………
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày 12 tháng 04 năm 2010
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày 10 tháng 07 năm 2010
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2010
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt
nghiệp:
2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra
trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số
liệu):
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..
..
..
..
..
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3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ):
..
..
..
Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. năm 2010
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký)
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài
liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………. tháng……… năm 2010
Người chấm phản biện
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
PART I : INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale of the study ····································································· 1
2. Aims of the study ··········································································· 2
3. Scope of the study ·········································································· 2
4. Method of the study ········································································ 2
5. Design of the study ········································································· 3
PART II : DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER ONE : THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
1. Translation theory
1.1. Definitions of translation ························································ 4
1.2. Methods of translation ·························································· 6
1.3. Equivalence in translation ······················································· 8
1.4. Case of non-equivalence ························································ 10
2. ESP in translation.
2.1. Concept of ESP ······································································ 11
2.2. Types of ESP ·········································································· 13
3.Translation of technical terms
3.1. Definition of technical translation ·········································· 15
3.2. Terms
3.2.1. What is terms ? ··························································· 16
3.2.2. The characteristics of terms ········································ 17
CHAPTER TWO : AN INVESTIGATION ON TECHNICAL TERMS
IN THE INTERFACE OF COMMON BUSINESS WEBSITES AND
THIER VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENT
1. Popular forms of technical terms in the interface of common business
websites
1.1. Single terms
1.1.1. Single terms with Prefixes
1.1.1.1. Negative prefixes ··············································· 18
1.1.1.2. Positive prefixes ················································· 19
1.1.2. Single terms with Suffixes
1.1.2.1. Noun-forming suffixes ····································· 21
1.1.2.2. Verb-forming suffixes ······································· 21
1.1.2.3. Adjective-forming suffixes ································ 33
1.2. Compound words
1.2.1. Compound noun························································· 23
1.2.2. Adverb + noun ··························································· 23
1.3. Phrases ·················································································· 24
1.4. Abbreviation ·········································································· 24
2. Meaning of technical terms in the interface of common business
websites
2.1. Single terms
2.1.1. Single terms carrying negative meaning ······················ 26
2.1.2. Single terms showing repetition/reversive meaning ···· 29
2.1.3. Single terms carrying the meaning of “the person/ thing/
who/ that” ··············································································· 31
2.1.4. Single terms with other meaning ································ 34
2.2. Compound
2.2.1. Non-idiomatic compound ··········································· 40
2.2.2. Idiomatic compound ··················································· 44
2.3. Phrases ·················································································· 45
2.4. Abbreviation ·········································································· 47
CHAPTER THREE : IMPLICATION
1. Recognized translation ··································································· 50
2. Literal translation ··········································································· 51
3. Translation by paraphrasing ··························································· 52
4. Translation by omission or addition ················································ 54
PART III : CONCLUSION
1. Issues addressed in the study ·························································· 56
2. Suggestions for further study ·························································· 57
ABBREVIATION
AmE……American English
ESP…….English for Specific Purpose
SL..Source Language
TL.Target Language
TT.Target Text
Adj….Adjective
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First and foremost, I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave
me the possibility to complete this research. I want to thank the English
Department of Haiphong Private University for giving me permission to
commence this thesis in the first instance and to do the necessary research
work.
I am deeply indebted to my supervisor Mrs. Tran Thi Ngoc Lien M.A whose
reference materials, support, stimulating suggestions and encouragement
helped me in all stages of this research for and writing of this research.
My classmates from class NA 1002 supported me a great deal and I want to
thank them for all their support, cooperation and valuable suggestions. I
would like to express my sincere appreciation to other fellow students of the
English Department for providing me their translation exercises and
assignments to use as references. Especially, I am obliged to my friends who
looked closely at the final version of the thesis for English style and grammar,
correcting both and offering suggestions for improvement.
Finally, I cannot fully express my gratitude to all the people whose direct and
indirect support helped me complete my research in time
1
PART I : INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale of the study
Though English is not the most widely spoken language in the world,it is the
world‟s most prominent language in business,education,communicationIt
has been estimated that more than 350 million people speak English all over
the world.When you look at the importance of English for international
business,you must look more than just the number of people who speak it and
what the language is used for.
In the 21st century,many companies have discovered that they can cut their
costs of production by sending their jobs oversea.Some have also found that
thet can save money by bringing immigrants into the country on work
visas.For someone living in the country where English is not the native
language,they will need to master this language in order to find a good job in
United States or England.
English is also the language of technology. Many kinds of technology are
based on this. The role of English language is increasing year by year .Have
you ever think about the ongoing impacts of English language on information
access. English is now the dominated language of information world. About
80% of internet web pages are in this language. Main information resources
are mostly published in this language or translated into it.
But although Internet services themselves are, generally speaking, easy to
learn and use, you will find yourself isolated on the Internet if you are not
familiar with English. This means that knowledge or lack of knowledge of
English is one of the most severe factors that cause polarization. Learning to
use a new Internet service or user interface may take a few hours, a few days,
or even weeks, but it takes years to learn a language so that you can use it in a
fluent and self-confident manner. Of course, when you know some English,
you can learn more just by using it on the Internet, but at least currently the
general tendency among Internet users is to discourage people in their
2
problems with the English language. Incorrect English causes a few flames
much more probably than encouragement and friendly advice.
As a result,I choose studying technical terms in business websites with the
hope that people who are not major in english will find it easier to use these
internet services. Nevertheless, due to my limited English, this study can not
avoid shortcomings. I hope to receive your contributions so that my study will
be more completed.
2. The study is aimed at
 Collecting and presenting some commonly used English terms in the
interface of business websites
 Identifying the formation and meaning of English terms used in
interface of business websites
 Giving some sugguestions in translating technical terms in business
websites
3. Scope of the study
The technical terms used in business and technology would require a great
amount of effort and time to study.However,due to the limitation of time and
knowledge,my study could not cover all the terms,but only focus on the
popular terms in the interface of common business websites. But hopefully
these will partly help people have general knowledge and understanding about
these technical terms in order to get easier to react these websites.
4. Methods of the study
The study is conducted with the combination of two main research method:
quantitative and qualitative.
As regards the first, after collecting the materials for study, the researcher
uses quantitative statistical analysis to identify the frequency, the types and
formation of English terms used in interface of business websites.
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Secondly, hypothesis testing is made use as a way of doing qualitative
method. The researcher suggests the strategies for translation of these terms,
and then try to test his hypthesis to see if the recommended procedures are
appropriate.
5. Design of the study
My research is divided into three parts,in which,the second is the most
important one.
Part One is the INTRODUCTION in which rationale , purposes , methods ,
scopes are presented
Part Two is the DEVELOPMENT that includes three chapters :
Chapter I is theoretical background which focuses on the defenitions ,
methods , procedures of translation in general,technical terms and definition
of terms
Chapter II is an investigation on translation of technical terms in the
interface of common business websites
Chapter III is the implications of my study
Part Three is the CONCLUSION which includes the summary of my study,
experiences acquired and sugguestion for further study.
4
PART TWO : DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER ONE : THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
1. Translation theory
1.1. Definitions of translation
Translation is very important but also difficult for English learners.
Translation has existed in every corner of our life. It is considered as an
indispensable part in the field of not only literature ,culture and religion but
also commercial advertisement ,popular entertainment ,public administration
,international diplomacy, scientific research publication ,judiciary procedure
,immigration and education .Thus, definitions of translation are numerous
and a large numbers of writers have written about this subject In this paper,
some various concepts of translation have been collected as follows:
The first definition is presented by Catford (1965: 20). He states that
translation is the replacement of textual material in one language by
equivalent textual material in another language
Very much similar to this definition is that by Savory (1968: 37) who
maintains that translation is made possible by an equivalent of thought that
lies behind its different verbal expressions.
Next, Nida and Taber (1959: 19) explained the process of translating as
follows.
“Translating consists of reproducing in the receptor language the closest
natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning
and secondly in terms of style.”
In Translation: Applications and Research, Brislin (1976: 1) defines
translation as:
“The general term referring to the transfer of thoughts and ideas from one
language (source) to another (target), whether the languages are in written or
oral form; whether the languages have established orthographies or do not
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have such standardization or whether one or both languages is based on signs,
as with sign languages of the deaf.”
Identical with the above definition is the one proposed by Pinhhuck (1977:
38). He maintains that “Translation is a process of finding a TL equivalent for
an SL utterance”.
In 1980, McGuire defined translation as “Translation involves the rendering
of a source language (SL) text into the target language (TL) so as to ensure
that the surface meaning of the two will be approximately similar and the
structure of the SL will be preserved as closely as possible, but not so closely
that the TL structure will be seriously distorted” (McGuire, 1980: 2).
Some scholars defined translation as an art / craft:
“Translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message
and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in
another language” (Newmark, 1981: 7).
Wills defines translation more or less similarly as follows.
“Translation is a transfer process which aims at the transformation of a
written SL text into an optimally equivalent TL text, and which requires the
syntactic, the semantic and the pragmatic understanding and analytical
processing of the SL” (Wills in Noss, 1982: 3).
Finally, according to Bell, translation is
“The transformation of a text originally in one language into an equivalent
text in a different language retaining, as far as possible, the content of the
message and the formal features and functional roles of the original text” (
Bell , 1991: xv).
Although these definitions are different in expression, they share common
features about finding the closest equivalence in meaning by the choice of
appreciate target language‟s lexical and grammatical structures,
communication situation, and cultural context. Some sort of movement from
6
one language to another depends on translation types that will be show in the
next part.
Or sometimes translation is defined simply such as “a piece of writing or
speech that has been translated from a different language.”
1.2. Translation methods
There are various methods by which the text may be translated. The central
problem of translating is whether to translate literally or freely. It all depends
on some factors such as the purpose of the translation, the nature of readership
and the text types.
As stated by Peter Newmark (1988:45) there are eight methods of translation,
namely word-for-word translation, literal translation, faithful translation,
semantic translation, adaptation, free translation, idiomatic translation and
communicative translation. And basing on the degree of emphasis on the SL
and TL, he puts it in a flattened diagram as below.
SL Emphasis
Word-for-word translation
Literal translation
Faithful translation
Semantic translation
TL Emphasis
Adaptation
Free translation
Idiomatic translation
Communicative translation
(1) The methods closest to the source language
a) Word-for-word Translation: in which the SL word order is preserved and
the words translated singly by their most common meanings. Cultural words
are translated literally. The main use of this method is either to understand the
7
mechanics of the source language or to construe a difficult text as pre-
translation process
b) Literal Translation: This is a broader form of translation, each SL word has
a corresponding TL word, but their primary meaning may differ. The SL
grammatical forms are converted to their nearest target language equivalents.
However, the lexical words are again translated out of context. Literal
translation is considered the basic translation step, both in communication and
semantic translation, in that translation starts from there. As pre-translation
process, it indicates problems to be solved.
c) Faithful Translation: This method tries to reproduce the precise contextual
meaning of the original within the constraint of the TL grammatical
structures. It transfers cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical
and lexical deviation from SL norms. It attempts to be completely faithful to
the intentions and the text-realization of the SL writer
d) Semantic Translation: It differs from faithful translation only in as far as it
must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, compromising
on meaning where appropriate so that

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