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Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and time,
such as the temperature, and if there is wind, rain, and sun. And weather
forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the
atmosphere for a future and a given location.
Human beings have attempted to predict the weather informally for
millennia and formally since at least the nineteenth century. Weather forecasting
then become an essential part of the daily living because it supports for human
beings to know and explain what the weather is, how the weather is, and how
the life will be without the knowledge about the weather.
We often face up with the difficulties in the daily weather phenomenon and
worry about how to know what will the weather like tomorrow. So, weather
forecasting will help us do it easily. Weather forecasting also support us deal with
the unusual kinds of climate to keep the socio – economic innovation in establish.
The natural phenomenon such as: rain, sun, hail, typhoon have a serious
impact on our life, sometimes they make the difficulties in eating, living,
wearing, or planting. So, dealing with the difficulties is necessary. Therefore,
understanding and knowing about the weather become more and more important
for everyone in business, in daily life, and learning. However, weather forecast
terms is not easy because of its complication and difference. Thus, the
development of the weather forecast study is an urgent need.

de_tai_a_study_on_translation_of_english_terms_related_to_we

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
——————————-
ISO 9001 : 2008
KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP
NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ
HẢI PHÒNG – 2010
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
GRADUATION PAPER
A STUDY ON TRANSLATION OF ENGLISH TERMS
RELATED TO WEATHER FORECAST
By:
Trịnh Xuân Xâm
Class:
Na1001
Supervisor:
Nguyễn Thị Quỳnh Hoa, M.A
HAI PHONG – 2010
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
Sinh viên: ……………………………………………………Mã số:……………………….
Lớp: ………………………..Ngành:…………………………………………………………..
Tên đề tài: …………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………..
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
..
..
..
..
..
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..
..
2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
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3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp.
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CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày 12 tháng 04 năm 2010
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày 10 tháng 07 năm 2010
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2010
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt nghiệp:
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2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra
trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số
liệu):
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ):
..
..
..
Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. năm 2010
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký)
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài liệu,
số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………. tháng……… năm 2010
Người chấm phản biện
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
In the process of completing the studying, I have received a great deal of help,
guidance and encouragement from my teachers and friends.
I would like to express my thanks to my supervisor – Miss. Nguyen Thi Quynh
Hoa, M.A for helping me through this challenging process.
I would like to express my special thanks to teachers of Foreign Language
Department for their supportive lectures that have provided me with good
background to do my research effectively.
Hai Phong, May 2010
Student
Trinh Xuan Xam
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……1
PART I: INTRODUCTION…….5
1. Rationale of the study….5
2. Aims of the study……6
3. Scope of the study……..6
4. Method of the study……6
5. Design of the study……7
PART II: DEVELOPMENT……..8
CHAPTER ONE: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND…….8
I. TRANSLATION THEORE………8
1. Definitions…….8
2. Translation methods……..9
2.1. The methods closest to the source language ………………………………………… 10
2.1.1. Word – for – word translation …………………………………………………………. 10
2.1.2. Literal translation ………………………………………………………………………….. 10
2.1.3. Faithful translation ………………………………………………………………………… 11
2.1.4. Semantic translation ………………………………………………………………………. 11
2.2. The methods closest to the target language …………………………………………. 11
2.2.1. Adaptation ……………………………………………………………………………………. 11
2.2.2. Free translation ……………………………………………………………………………… 12
2.2.3. Idiomatic translation ………………………………………………………………………. 12
2.2.4. Communicative translation …………………………………………………………….. 12
3. Strategies for translation ……………………………………………………………………… 13
3.1. With non – equivalence at lexical level ………………………………………………. 13
3.1.1. Translating by a more specific word ………………………………………………… 13
3.1.2. Translating by a more general word ………………………………………………… 13
3.1.3. Translating by cultural substitution ………………………………………………….. 13
3.1.4. Translating by using a loan word plus explanation ……………………………. 14
3.1.5. Translating by using a paraphrase ……………………………………………………. 14
3.1.6. Translating by omission ………………………………………………………………… 14
3.2. With idioms and set expression………………………………………………………….. 15
3.2.1. In the similar meaning and form ……………………………………………………… 15
3.2.2. In the similar meaning and different form ……………………………………….. 15
4. Equivalence in translation……….15
II. Translation of ESP……..18
1. Definition of ESP……18
2. Types of ESP…………20
English for Science and Technology (EST) ……………………………………………….. 21
English for Business and Economics (EBE) ………………………………………………. 21
English for Social Studies (ESS) ………………………………………………………………. 21
3. Weather forecast ESP translation………22
4. Definition of technical translation……..22
5. Terms in weather forecast field……..23
CHAPTER TWO: AN INVESTIGATION ON WEATHER FORECAST
TERMS AND THEIR VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENT……26
I. THE POPULAR CONSTRUCTION OF WEATHER TERMS AND
STRATEGIES FOR TRANSLATION WEATHER TERM………..26
1. Single terms……..26
1.1. Single terms are formed by the help of suffixes……..27
2. Compound terms……..32
2.1. Noun + Noun …………………………………………………………………………………… 32
2.2. Adjective + Noun …………………………………………………………………………….. 35
2.3. Noun + Verb ……………………………………………………………………………………. 36
3. Common terms…… …………………. 37
CHAPTER THREE: IMPLICATIONS……..44
PART III: CONCLUSION……45
1. Strengths and weakness of the thesis ……..45
2. Suggestion for the further research ……………………………………………………….. 46
3. Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
REFERENCE
1
PART I: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale of the study
Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and time,
such as the temperature, and if there is wind, rain, and sun. And weather
forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the
atmosphere for a future and a given location.
Human beings have attempted to predict the weather informally for
millennia and formally since at least the nineteenth century. Weather forecasting
then become an essential part of the daily living because it supports for human
beings to know and explain what the weather is, how the weather is, and how
the life will be without the knowledge about the weather.
We often face up with the difficulties in the daily weather phenomenon and
worry about how to know what will the weather like tomorrow. So, weather
forecasting will help us do it easily. Weather forecasting also support us deal with
the unusual kinds of climate to keep the socio – economic innovation in establish.
The natural phenomenon such as: rain, sun, hail, typhoon have a serious
impact on our life, sometimes they make the difficulties in eating, living,
wearing, or planting. So, dealing with the difficulties is necessary. Therefore,
understanding and knowing about the weather become more and more important
for everyone in business, in daily life, and learning. However, weather forecast
terms is not easy because of its complication and difference. Thus, the
development of the weather forecast study is an urgent need.
The number of Vietnamese learners get trouble in translating weather
terms. I myself often become confused with weather forecast terms whenever I
deal with them. Hence, it is very necessary for me to acquire accumulation of
linguistic and cultural knowledge in both native language and foreign languages.
Moreover, I am also interested in translation skills, especially in translation in
2
weather forecast terms. That is the main reason inspiring the writer carry out this
research.
2. Aims of the study
The study on translation of basic weather terms aims to figure out an
overview on translation strategies and procedures commonly employed in
translation of basic weather terms.
In details, my research aims at:
● Collecting and presenting the basic English terms in weather forecast.
● Providing their Vietnamese equivalents or expressions.
● Analyzing translation strategies and procedures employed in the
translation of these English terms into Vietnamese.
To help readers understand and use the weather information efficiently, and
have a certain understanding of some terms in the newsletter as well as the
reliability of the forecasts the weather.
3. Scope of the study
The terms used in the weather forecast field would be a great amount of
effort and time to study. The writer only focuses the study on translation and
translation strategies in general, and contrastive analysis between specific basic
weather forecast terms in English and in Vietnamese.
My thesis is also limited to the presentation and discussion of English
terms and their corresponding in Vietnamese collected from the resource
mentioned above with initial analysis and comments on strategies employed for
the translation of these terms.
4. Method of the study
3
This research is carried out with view to help learners enlarge their
vocabulary and have general understanding about translation and translation of
the astronomy and geography terms.
All of English and Vietnamese terms are collected from: Web in Internet,
the dictionary of astronomy and geography terms and reference book. I will
divide into groups from these data based on their common character and then I
carry out my research on procedures used to translate them into Vietnamese.
5. Design of the study
My research paper is divided into three parts, in which the second ,
naturally, is the most important part.
● Part I: is the INTRODUCTION in which reason, aims, scope, method
and design of the study are presented.
● Part II: is the DEVELOPMENT that includes 2 chapters:
Chapter I is “theoretical background” which focuses on the definition,
methods, procedures of translation in general and English for specific Purpose
translation, technical translation and definition of terms.
Chapter II is an investigation on Weather forecast terms and their
equivalents including popular construction of weather forecast terms and
popular strategies applied in translating Weather forecast terms into Vietnamese.
● Part III: is the CONCLUSION which include main findings, experience
acquired, and suggestions for further studies.
4
PART II: DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER ONE: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
I. TRANSLATION THEORY
1. Definitions
Translation has existed in every corner of our life. It is considered as an
indispensable part in the field of not only literature, culture and religion but also
commercial advertisement, popular entertainment, public administration,
immigration and education.Thus, definitions of translation are numerous, and
a great numbers of books and articles have written about this subject. The
following are some typical definitions that are basic theoretical background for
this study.
What is translation? Often, though not by any means always, it is rendering
the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended
the text.
Through translation is no longer a strange terminology in daily life, there is
hardly any agreement on the definition of it. A great number of books and
articles have been written about this debatable subject. The following are some
typical definitions that are basic theoretical background for this study.
As started by the definition on the website:
“Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent
production of an equivalent text, likewise called a translation that communicates
the same message in another language. The text to be translated is called the
source text, and the language that it is to be translated into is called the target
language; the final product is sometimes called the target text.”(Wikipedia)
This definition is so long and only show that translation is the interpreting
of the meaning and the subsequent production of two texts. One other definition
is made by the translator:
5
“Translation can be generally defined as the action of interpretation of the
meaning of a text, and production of an equivalent text that communicates the
same message in another language.”(By Roger T. Bell)
He also adds that:
“ Translation is the expression in another language (target language) of
what has been expressed in one language (source language), preserving semantic
and stylistic equivalence. (By Roger T. Bell)
Roger‟s two definitions are the specific written about translation which
indicate translation is the transferring both the form and the meaning from one
language to other in equivalence. We continuously consider one definition of
Catford:
“Translation is the replacement of a text in one language (Source language)
by an equivalent text in another language (Target language)” (Catford :1988)).
This is the general definition about translation because it is only the
replacement one language by an equivalent another language.
Although these definitions are different in expression, they share common
features that they all emphasize the importance finding the closest equivalence
in meaning by the choice of appropriate target language‟s lexical and
grammatical structures. Some sorts of movement from one language to another
also insist on the different methods of translation which will be taken into
consideration in the next part.
2. Translation methods
There are various methods by which the text may be translated. The central
problem of translating is whether to translate literally or freely. It all depends on
some factors such as the purpose of the translation, the nature of readership and
the text types.
6
As stated by Peter Newmark (1988:45) there are eight methods of
translation namely word – for – word translation, literal translation, faithful
translation, semantic translation, adaptation, free translation, idiomatic
translation and communicative translation. And basing on the degree o emphasis
on source language(SL) and target language(TL), he puts it in diagram as below.
SL Emphasis:
Word – for – word
Literal translation
Faithful translation
Semantic translation
TL Emphasis:
Adaptation
Free translation
Idiomatic translation
Communicative translation
(2.1) The methods closest to the source language
(2.1.1) Word – for – word Translation: in which the SL word order is preserved
and the words translated singly by their most common meanings. Cultural words
are translated literally. The main use of this method is either to understand the
mechanics of the SL or to construe a difficult text as pre-translation process. For
example:
Vietnamese: Mời bạn về nhà tôi chơi
Word – for – word translation: Invite friend about me play.
(The common words of basic English, p:98)
(2.1.2) Literal Translation: This is a boarder form of translation, each SL word
has a corresponding TL word, but their primary meaning may differ. The SL
grammatical forms are converted to their nearest TL equivalents. However, the
lexical words are again translated out of context. Literal translation is considered
the basic translation step, both in communication and semantic translation, in
that translation stars from there. As pre-translation process, it indicates problems
to be solved. For example:
7
Vietnamese: Nhiều du khách nước ngoài đã giới thiệu cho chúng tôi về khách
sạn Hương Giang.
Literal translation: Many foreign tourists have introduced us about Huong Giang
Hotel.
(English – Vietnamese translation practice, 2003, p:200)
(2.1.3) Faithful Translation: This method tries to reproduce the precise
contextual meaning of the original with the constraint of the SL grammatical
structures. It transfers cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical
and lexical deviation from SL norms. It attempts to be completely faithful to the
intentions and the text realization of the SL writer. For example:
Vietnamese: Người ta xem Nguyễn Du là một nhà thơ vĩ đại.
Faithful translation: Nguyen Du is considered to be a great poet.
(English – Vietnamese translation practice, 2003, p:156)
(2.1.4) Semantic translation: It differ from faithful translation only in as far as it
must take more account of the aesthesis value of the SL text, compromising on
meaning where appropriate so that no assonance, word play or repetition jars in
the finished version. It does not rely o cultural equivalent and makes very small
concessions to the readership. While “faithful” translation is dogmatic, semantic
translation more flexible. New Mark (1982:22) say that : “.semantic
constraints of the TL, to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the
author.” For example:
Vietnamese: Cụ ấy thường mặc áo sơ mi vải silk màu xanh cỡ nhỏ.
Semantic translation: He often wears a small blue silk shirt.
(HPU translation text book)

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