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Globalization and integration in the Vietnamese trend of education
have continued to grow stronger and stronger, from public policies to
specific actions, from teachers to students, from schools to the society, at
every level, especially higher education oversea. Education is larger and
deeper than propaganda or politics. Education, even when done very
flexibly and lightly, is still a heavy industry of the society‟s survival and
development. For a long time we have been wrong at this very point in
education. We have “shortened” education. We have “propagandized”,
“politicized” not only social sciences but even natural sciences, not
excluding mathematics, chemistry, physics or biology We have let many
generations become almost philosophically illiterate, meaning knowing
nothing or very little about the long, painful and heroic struggle of
Education becomes harder and heavier after changes and changes are made
because it always rush to become a light industry that try to meet with the
immediate demands of the society,

de_tai_a_study_on_translation_of_vietnamese_education_terms

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1
HAI PHONG PRIVATE UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE
.o0o.
ISO 9001: 2008
GRADUATION PAPER
A STUDY ON TRANSLATION OF VIETNAMESE
EDUCATION TERMS INTO ENGLISH
By: NGO THI NGOC LAN
Class: NA 1002
Supervisor: NGUYEN THI PHI NGA, M.A.
HAI PHONG – 2010
2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
In the process of completing this Graduation Paper, I have received a
great deal of help, guidance and encouragement from my teachers and
friends.
I would first and foremost like to express my thanks to my
supervisor Mrs. Nguyen Thi Phi Nga, M.A for helping me through this
challenging process.
I would also like to express my special thanks to other teachers of
Foreign Language Department for their supportive lectures during four
tears that have provided me with good background to do effectively my
Graduation Paper.
Finally, I would like to thank my family, my friend who have offered
continuous support, encouraged and helped me to complete this paper.
3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
PART ONE: INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………… 1
1. Rationale of the study ………………………………………………………………………………. 1
2. Aims of the study …………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
3. Scope of the study ……………………………………………………………………………………. 3
4. Method of the study …………………………………………………………………………………. 3
5. Design of the study ………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
PART TWO: DEVELOPMENT ……………………………………………………………… 5
Chapter I: Theoretical Background………………………………………………………… 5
1. Understanding of translation …………………………………………………………………… 5
1.1. Concepts of translation …………………………………………………………………………. 5
1.2. Types of translation ………………………………………………………………………………. 7
1.2.1 Word-for-word translation ………………………………………………………………….. 7
1.2.2. Literal translation ……………………………………………………………………………….. 7
1.2.3. Faithful translation …………………………………………………………………………….. 7
1.2.4. Semantic translation …………………………………………………………………………… 8
1.2.5. Adaptation translation………………………………………………………………………… 8
1.2.6. Free translation …………………………………………………………………………………… 8
1.2.7. Idiomatic translation ………………………………………………………………………….. 9
1.2.8. Communicative translation ……………………………………………………………….. 9
1.2.9. Other translation …………………………………………………………………………………. 9
1.3. Equivalence in translation …………………………………………………………………….. 10
2. ESP in translation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
2.1. Concepts of ESP ……………………………………………………………………………………. 12
4
2.2. Types of ESP …………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
3. Term in English ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
3.1. What is term? ………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
3.2. The characteristics of terms ………………………………………………………………….. 15
4. Types of language ……………………………………………………………………………………. 16
4.1. The target language (domesticating) translation approach …………………. 16
4.2. The source language (foreignzing) translation approach ……………………. 17
4.3. Source language-oriented and target language-oriented translation
approaches ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Chapter II: Translation of Vietnamese education terms into English . 19
1. Collection of Vietnamese Education Terms and English equivalence … 19
1.1. Education programs ………………………………………………………………………………. 19
1.1.1. Pre-graduation programs …………………………………………………………. 19
1.1.2. Graduation programs …………………………………………………………………………. 21
1.1.3. Post-graduation programs …………………………………………………………………. 22
1.1.4. Cooperative Education programs ……………………………………………………… 22
1.2. Education standards ………………………………………………………………………………. 23
1.3. Types of education organizations ………………………………………………………… 25
2. Comment of Translation of Vietnamese Education Terms into English 30
Chapter III: Main findings ……………………………………………………………………… 36
1. Difficulties in Translation of Terms in Vietnamese Education …………….. 36
2. Suggestion for Translation of Terms in Vietnamese Education ……………. 36
2.1. Similarities in Education System …………………………………………………………. 37
2.2. Differences in Education System …………………………………………………………. 39
PART THREE: CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………… 43
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
5
PART ONE: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale of the study:
Globalization and integration in the Vietnamese trend of education
have continued to grow stronger and stronger, from public policies to
specific actions, from teachers to students, from schools to the society, at
every level, especially higher education oversea. Education is larger and
deeper than propaganda or politics. Education, even when done very
flexibly and lightly, is still a heavy industry of the society‟s survival and
development. For a long time we have been wrong at this very point in
education. We have “shortened” education. We have “propagandized”,
“politicized” not only social sciences but even natural sciences, not
excluding mathematics, chemistry, physics or biology We have let many
generations become almost philosophically illiterate, meaning knowing
nothing or very little about the long, painful and heroic struggle of
Education becomes harder and heavier after changes and changes are made
because it always rush to become a light industry that try to meet with the
immediate demands of the society, while it should be a heavy industry that
creates foundations for people to flexibly and creatively adapt to the
demands of a rapidly changing society
Therefore it is indeed time to face the issue and present profound
answers for the long-term, fundamental and urgent problem of education:
What is the relationship between education system and the education
terms? What is the relationship between education and the present, the past
and the future? What are the different notions of school subjects among
countries? … From there, we would be able to answer the question of what
the demands presented by globalization and integration to education
actually are. Only with such awareness about education could the correct
answers for education in the context of integration be delivered.
6
When Viet Nam joined the regional and international organizations,
our education system needs to be recognized globally. Thus, requirement of
comparison the training programs according to the most popular language
in the world – English becomes essential. Nowadays, universities in our
country have also been evaluate and recognized international standards of
the Netherland and Hai Phong Private University was one of twenty
universities recognized international standards. Moreover, our society
develops day by day, the needs of notarizing is more than. Many
certificates, degrees are translated into and written in English. Because of
these reasons, education terms become an imperative demand and need an
appropriate equivalence.
This motivates me – a student of Hai Phong Private University who
was approached the modern education and some new training programs of
my university, I was attracted by the programs and its terms. I feel I really
need and should understand terms in education. Because it is very practical
and necessary not only for me but also for my friends, my family or
everybody, who have demand to study in country as well as in abroad.
For these reasons, I chose “A Study on Translation of Vietnamese
Education Terms into English” for my graduation.
2. Aims of the study
The study on translation of education terms aims to figure out an
overview on translation strategies and procedures commonly employed in
translation of education terms.
In details, my Graduation Paper aims at:
Collecting and presenting basic Vietnamese terms in education.
Providing their English equivalents or expressions
7
Preliminarily analyzing translation strategies and procedures employed
in the translation of these Vietnamese terms into English.
Providing students majoring in the subject and those who may concern
a draft and short reference of basic Vietnamese terms in education and
their corresponding in English
I hope that this study can provide readers with overall
comprehension about the information from written text and from visual
forms of presentation relates to education terms, help them translate it
effectively.
3. Scope of the study
Nowadays, when the culture, society and education quickly develop,
the studying or educating has become more and more popular and integral
to the human development. Therefore, the training programs of education
system are diversified.
However, due to limitation of time and my knowledge, my study
could not cover all the aspect of this theme. I only can translate education
terms from Vietnamese into English of programs and standards of
education.
4. Method of the study
Being a student of Foreign Language Department, after years of
learning English, studying translation, I was equipped with many skills or
techniques for translation. This graduation paper is carried out with view to
help learners enlarge their vocabulary and have general understanding
about translation and translation of education terms. To successfully
complete this topic, I‟m patient and enthusiastic:
To consult my supervisor, my friends.
8
To search documents and the sources of information such as on internet,
TV, reference books, newspapers, universities etc
To base on my experiences on education.
5. Design of the study
My graduation paper is divided into three parts and the second,
naturally, is the most important part.
The first part is the Introduction, including: the rationale, aims, scope,
method and design of the study.
The second part is the Development that includes three chapters:
Chapter I: Theoretical background: It focuses on the concepts of
translation, terms in English and form of language as well as
different methods used by professional translators.
Chapter II: An investigation into translation of Vietnamese
education terms includes my analysis to lead my readers to
translation of terms in Vietnamese education (education programs,
education standards, types of education organizations).
Chapter III: Strategies are introduced for better translation of terms
in Vietnamese education.
The last part is the Conclusion in which I summary the study (experiences
acquired and state the orientation for future study).
9
PART TWO: DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER I
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
1. Translation theory
1.1. Concepts of translation
There are so many concepts of translation, which are developed by
lots of famous linguistic of translation.
Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language
(source language) by equivalent textual material in another language
(target language).
(Catford – 1965)
Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the
subsequent production of an equivalent text, likewise called a
“translation,” that communicates the same message in another
language. The text to be translated is called the “source text,” and the
language that it is to be translated into is called the “target language”;
the final product is sometimes called the “target text.”
(Wikipedia)
Translation is the process of finding a target language (TL) equivalent
from a source language (SL) utterance.
(Pinhhuck – 1977:38)
Translation is the process of changing something that is written or
spoken into another language.
(Advanced Oxford Dictionary)
10
Translation is a transfer process, which aims at the transformation of a
written SL text into an optimally equivalent TL text, and which requires
the syntactic, the semantic and the pragmatic understanding and
analytical processing of the SL.
(Wilss – 1982: 3)
Translation is the act of transferring through which the content of a text
is transferred from the SL into the TL.
(Foster – 1958:1)
Translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written
message and/or statements in one language by the same message and/or
statement in another language.
(Newmark, 1981:7)
Translation is to be understood as the process whereby a message
expressed in a specific source language is linguistically transformed in
order to be understood by readers of the “target language”
( Houbert – 1998:1)
Translation is a text with qualities of equivalence to a prior text in
another language, such that the new text is taken as a substitute for the
original.
(David Frank – WordPress.com)
Translation is an act of communication which attempts to relay, across
cultural and linguistic boundaries, another act of communication.
(Hatim and Mason – 1997:1)
These concepts support the idea that translation is a complex process.
I require theoretical knowledge as well as practical experiences.
11
1.2. Types of translation
1.2.1. Word-for-word translation
This is often demonstrated as interlinear translation, with the TL
immediately below the SL words. The SL word-order is preserved and the
word translated singly by their most common meanings, out of context.
Culture words are translated literally. The main use of word-for-word
translation is either to understand the meaning of the SL or to construct a
difficult text as a pre-translation process. For example:
Source text: When my young sister was a child, she learned very well.
Target text: Khi em gái tôi còn nhỏ, nó học rất giỏi.
1.2.2. Literal translation
The SL grammatical construction is converted to the nearest TL
equivalents but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context.
For example:
Source text: The project was implemented thank to the assistance of the
United State.
Target text: Dự án này được thực hiện nhờ sự giúp đỡ của Mỹ.
1.2.3. Faithful translation
A faithful translation is used when translators want to reproduce the
precise contextual meaning of the SL within the restriction of the TL
grammatical structures. It converts cultural words but reserves the degree
of grammatical and lexical “abnormality” in the translation. It attempts to
be completely faithful to the intentions and text-realization of the SL
writer. For example:
Source text: Today the Vietnamese are, almost no exception, extremely
friendly to Western visitors.
12
Target text: Ngày nay, người Việt Nam, gần như không có ngoại lệ, đều
rất thân thiện với khách du lịch người phương Tây.
1.2.4. Semantic translation
Semantic translation differs from faithful translation only in as far as
it must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text,
compromising on “meaning” where appropriate so that no assonance,
word-play or repetition jars in finished version. For example:
Source text: We hope you will enjoy your staying with us.
Target text: Chúng tôi hy vọng ngài sẽ có một kỳ nghỉ tuyệt vời tại khách
sạn này.
1.2.5. Adaptation translation
This seems to be the freest form of translation. It is used mainly for
plays and poetry in which the themes, characters and plots are usually
preserved, the SL culture converted to the TL culture and text rewritten by
an established dramatist or poet has produced many poor adaptations but
other adaptation has “rescued” period plays. For example:
Source text: Thà một phút huy hoàng rồi chợt tắt
Còn hơn buồn le lói suốt trăm năm
(Xuân Diệu)
Target text: It would rather the victorious brightness
In an only moment the centenary twinkle
1.2.6. Free translation
This reproduces the matter without the manner, or the content
without the form of the original. Usually it is a paraphrase much longer
13
than the original, a so-called “intralingua translation”, often prolix and
pretentious and not translation at all. For example:
Source text: To reduce fertility rate the present 3.7 children per woman to
replacement level of 2.
Target text: Tỉ lệ sinh hiện tại của phụ nữ giảm từ 3,7 xuống còn 2 trẻ.
1.2.7. Idiomatic translation
Idiomatic translation reproduces the “message” of the original but
tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and the
idiom where these do not exists in the original. For example:
Source text: Follow love and it will flee thee, flee love and it will follow
thee.
Target text: Theo tình thì tình chạy, trốn tình thì tình theo.
1.2.8. Communicative translation
Communicative translation attempts to reader the exact contextual
meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are
readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. For example:
Source text: Good morning!
Target text: bác đi đâu đấy ạ!
1.2.9. Other translation
Beside the above common the types of translation, some of the
following types are sometime used during translation process. They
include: service translation, plum prose translation, information translation,
cognitive translation, academic translation.
14
1.3. Equivalence in translation
The dictionary defines equivalence as being the same, similar or
interchangeable with something else. In translation terms, equivalence is a
term used to refer to the nature and extent of the relationship between SL
and TL texts or smaller linguistic units.
The problem of equivalence is one of the most important issues in
the field of translating. It is a question of finding suitable counterparts in
target language for expressions in the source language.
The comparison of texts in different languages inevitably involves a
theory of equivalence. Accor

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