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During four years studying at the university, I realized that writing is a
difficult skill, which requires a basic background of English grammar. In
written English, writers always have to pay attention to many grammar factors
such as tenses, sentence structures, parts of speech, conjunctions, and
punctuation marks. Each of them plays an important part in maki ng a correct
sentence, especially punctuations. A complete sentence hardly ever misses
punctuation marks. In fact, punctuation marks have a big role in making clear
the meaning of a sentence, avoiding the ambiguity.
Despite having learned it from the university, I still aware of that I need to
study much more about punctuation and their rules because of some reasons.
Firstly, I also have made many mistakes on punctuation when I write.
Moreover, I want to find out the reasons and solution for those mistakes .
Secondly, understanding well the use of some typical punctuation such as
period, comma, colon, semicolon, question mark, and exclamation mark is
necessary for my life.

de_tai_how_to_use_some_typical_types_of_punctuation_properly

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
——————————-
ISO 9001 : 2008
KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP
NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ
HẢI PHÒNG – 2010
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
GRADUATION PAPER
HOW TO USE SOME TYPICAL TYPES OF
PUNCTUATION PROPERLY IN WRITTEN ENGLISH
AND COMMON MISTAKE MADE BY VIETNAMESE
LEARNERS
By:
Trịnh Thị Lưu Quỳnh
Class:
Na1001
Supervisor:
Phạm Thị Thu Hằng, M.A
HAI PHONG – 2010
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
Sinh viên: ……………………………………………………Mã số:………………………
Lớp: ………………………..Ngành:…………………………………………………………..
Tên đề tài: …………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………..
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt
nghiệp ( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
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2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
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3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp.
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CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày 12 tháng 04 năm 2010
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày 10 tháng 07 năm 2010
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2010
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt
nghiệp:
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2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra
trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số
liệu):
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3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ):
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Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. năm 2010
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký)
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài
liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………. tháng……… năm 2010
Người chấm phản biện
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I. INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………… 1
1. Rationale ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
2. Aims of the study ……………………………………………………………………………… 1
3. Scope of the study …………………………………………………………………………….. 2
5. Design of the study ……………………………………………………………………………. 2
PART II. DEVELOPMENT ……………………………………………………………….. 3
CHAPTER 1. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ……………………………….. 3
I. GENERAL VIEW ON WRITTEN ENGLISH ……………………………………… 3
1. What is written English? ……………………………………………………………………. 3
2. Types of written English ……………………………………………………………………. 3
II. ENGLISH PUNCTUATION MARKS ……………………………………………….. 4
1. What is punctuation? …………………………………………………………………………. 4
2. Classification of punctuation ……………………………………………………………… 5
2.1. Grammatical points ………………………………………………………………………… 5
2.1.1. The Comma [ , ] ………………………………………………………………………….. 5
2.1.2. The Semicolon [ ; ] ………………………………………………………………………. 5
2.1.3. The Colon [ : ] …………………………………………………………………………….. 6
2.1.4. The Period [.] ……………………………………………………………………………… 6
2.2. The Grammatical and Rhetorical points ……………………………………………. 6
2.2.1. The Question mark [?] ………………………………………………………………….. 6
2.2.2. The Exclamation mark [!] …………………………………………………………….. 6
2.3.2. The Hyphen [ – ] ………………………………………………………………………….. 8
2.3.3. The Quotation mark [“ ”], [„ ‟] ………………………………………………………. 8
1.4. Miscellaneous points ………………………………………………………………………. 8
1.4.1. The Brackets [ ] ………………………………………………………………………….. 8
1.4.2. A Comma Inverted [ „ ] ………………………………………………………………… 9
1.4.3. Two Commas [ ,, ] ……………………………………………………………………….. 9
1.4.4. The Caret [ ^ ]……………………………………………………………………………… 9
1.4.5. Marks of Ellipsis [ ] …………………………………………………………………. 9
1.4.6. Slash [ / ] …………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
2. Main functions of Punctuation Marks ………………………………………………….. 9
CHAPTER 2. AN INVESTIGATION ON SOME TYPICAL TYPES OF
PUNCTUATION IN WRITTEN ENGLISH ………………………………………. 11
I. WHAT IS TYPICAL TYPES OF PUNCTUATION MARKS IN
WRITTEN ENGLISH? ……………………………………………………………………….. 11
II. RULES OF USING SOME TYPICAL TYPES OF PUNCTUATION
MARKS …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
1. Comma ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
1.1. The Use of a Comma in the Words or Phrases that are joined by
coordinating conjunctions ……………………………………………………………………. 12
1.2. The Use of Comma in Series of Words …………………………………………… 13
1.3. The Use of Comma with Words in Apposition (Nouns or Phrases in
Apposition) ………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
1.4. The Use of Comma in Relative Clauses ………………………………………….. 15
1.5. The Use of Comma in Adjectival, Participial, and Absolute Phrases ….. 15
1.6. The Use of Comma in Adverbs and Adverbial Phrases …………………….. 16
1.7.The Use of Comma in Dependent Clauses ……………………………………….. 17
1.8. The Use of Comma in Direct Quotations ………………………………………… 17
1.9. Other Conventional Uses of Commas ……………………………………………… 18
2. Semicolon ………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
2.1. The Use of Semicolon in Coordinate Clauses ………………………………….. 19
2.2. The Use of Semicolon in a Series …………………………………………………… 21
2.3. The Use of Semicolon in Explanatory Phrases and Clauses ………………. 22
3. Colon …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
3.1. The Use of Colon in Clauses ………………………………………………………….. 22
3.2. The Use of Colon in Quotations …………………………………………………….. 23
3.3. The Use of Colon in Introducing a List or a Series …………………………… 24
3.4. The Other Conventional Uses of Colon …………………………………………… 25
4. Periods …………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
4.1. The Use of Period in Sentences ……………………………………………………… 25
4.2. The Use of Period in Headings and Subheads ………………………………….. 26
4.3. The Use of Periods in Abbreviations ………………………………………………. 26
4.4. The Other Conventional Uses of Periods …………………………………………. 27
5. Question Mark ………………………………………………………………………………… 28
5.1. The Use of Question Mark in indicating queries ………………………………. 28
5.2. The Use of Question Marks in Requests ………………………………………….. 29
5.3. The Use of Question Marks in Rhetorical question …………………………… 29
5.4. The Use of Question Mark in Parenthesis to indicate uncertainty (?)…..30
5.5. The Uses of Question Mark with Other Punctuation Marks ………………. 30
6. Exclamation Mark …………………………………………………………………………… 31
6.1. The Uses of Exclamation Marks in Strong Emotion or Emphatic
Declaration ………………………………………………………………………………………… 32
6.2. The Uses of Exclamation Mark in Rhetorical Questions …………………… 33
6.3. The Use of Exclamation Mark For Drawing Attention to unlikely point 33
CHAPTER 3 THE IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY ……………………….. 35
I. SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRES ON COMMON PUNCTUATION
MISTAKES MADE BY VIETNAMESE LEARNERS …………………………… 35
1. Participants …………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
2. Purpose of survey questionnaires ………………………………………………………. 35
3. Design of survey questionnaires ……………………………………………………….. 35
4. Data analysis …………………………………………………………………………………… 36
4.2. Vietnamese students

knowledge about the use of punctuation marks in
written English and common punctuation mistakes made by them. ………….. 38
4.2.1. Students

attitudes toward punctuation marks and common mistakes
(Question 2+3+4+5+6, Appendix) ………………………………………………………… 38
4.2.2. Students

understanding of comma and comma errors ……………………. 40
4.2.3. Students

knowledge of semicolon and semicolon errors ………………… 42
4.2.4. Students

understanding of Colon and Colon Errors……………………….. 43
4.2.4. Students

understanding of period and period errors. ……………………… 44
4.2.5. Students

understanding of Apostrophe and apostrophe errors …………. 45
5. Findings and discussion of findings …………………………………………………… 45
II. SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS FOR SOME COMMON PUNCTUATION
MISTAKES ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
1. Comma splice …………………………………………………………………………………. 46
2. Semicolon for colon ………………………………………………………………………… 46
3. Colon after such as, including, to be ………………………………………………….. 46
4. Missing period between sentences …………………………………………………….. 46
PART III. CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………… 47
APPENDIX THE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRES ……………………………… 48
I. Self-Assessment of English writing skills, basic grammar, and punctuation. ….. 48
II. Question on the use of punctuation marks in written English and common
some punctuation mistakes. …………………………………………………………………. 49
1. Survey on punctuation marks ……………………………………………………………. 49
2. Survey on comma and comma errors …………………………………………………. 49
3. Survey on semicolon and semicolon errors ………………………………………… 50
5. Survey on period and period errors ……………………………………………………. 51
6. Survey on apostrophe and apostrophe errors ………………………………………. 52
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………. 53
PART I. INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
During four years studying at the university, I realized that writing is a
difficult skill, which requires a basic background of English grammar. In
written English, writers always have to pay attention to many grammar factors
such as tenses, sentence structures, parts of speech, conjunctions, and
punctuation marks. Each of them plays an important part in making a correct
sentence, especially punctuations. A complete sentence hardly ever misses
punctuation marks. In fact, punctuation marks have a big role in making clear
the meaning of a sentence, avoiding the ambiguity.
Despite having learned it from the university, I still aware of that I need to
study much more about punctuation and their rules because of some reasons.
Firstly, I also have made many mistakes on punctuation when I write.
Moreover, I want to find out the reasons and solution for those mistakes.
Secondly, understanding well the use of some typical punctuation such as
period, comma, colon, semicolon, question mark, and exclamation mark is
necessary for my life.
For the reasons mentioned above, I decided to choose the title “How to use
some typical types of punctuation properly in written English and common
mistakes made by Vietnamese learners” for my study.
2. Aims of the study
The fact is, we all write in such these days, and punctuation is one of the first
casualties. Difficulties with punctuation affect all writers, whether they are
native speakers or otherwise. Therefore, I particularly want to make clear the
rule of using punctuation in my study with these following aims:
– Giving a general view on written English and punctuation with its
definition, classification, function, role.
– Providing the basic rules of some typical types of punctuation such as
period (or full stop), commas, colon, semicolon, question mark, and
exclamation mark.
– Indicating some common mistakes made by Vietnamese learners, giving
solution for them.
3. Scope of the study
Punctuation marks in written English are rather various. However, the
research on all kinds of punctuation in written English is too hard for an
undergraduate student like me. Therefore, in this paper, I just focus on
studying the rules of using some typical types of punctuation that are often
used most in writing such as comma, colon, semicolon, period (or full stop),
question mark (or interrogation mark), and exclamation mark.
4. Methods of the study
Quantitative method: During my research process, I chose the quantitative
method to analyze my data that I collected through the survey questionnaires
on the common punctuation mistakes made by Vietnamese learners. I also use
some charts to express the figures and analyze them.
Others methods:
– Acquiring and referring to the guidance from my teachers.
– Getting all necessary information from internet, books, dictionaries, and
library.
5. Design of the study
This paper provides a clear organization consisting three main parts that help
an easy exploration and practical benefits gained for readers as well.
 PART I starts with an INTRODUCTION including Rationale, Aims of the
study, Scope of the study, and Method of the study and Design of the study.
 PART II consists of DEVELOPMENT consisting three chapters as
following:
Chapter 1: Theoretical background of written English, punctuation with
its definition, classification, functions, and role
Chapter 2: An investigation on some typical types of punctuation in
written English
Chapter 3: The implication of the study
 PART III ends with CONCLUSION, which summarizes the
knowledge mentioned through three chapters above.
PART II. DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER 1. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
I. GENERAL VIEW ON WRITTEN ENGLISH
1. What is written English?
Written English is a way of recording English language using any of various
instruments and material, such as pen and paper, chisel and stone, or
computers. The language itself is either spoken or signed, so written language
develops as a way of representing what has been said. In many cultures,
community languages are unwritten.
(
In fact, written English has many differences from spoken language. One of
the most essential differences between them is the degree of formality. In
general, we often our writing is often more formal than our speaking.
Because, in spoken English, we can see listeners and may know well about
them, our speaking can be less formal. Nevertheless, in written English, writer
does not know readers personally. Therefore, they have to use words and
sentences formally and clearly in order to serve a variety of readers.
2. Types of written English
In written English, types of texts are very various depending on the
using purposes of writers. According to Writing of Hedge,
T.1988.Oxford University Press, written English has some types as
follows:
Personal writing: Diaries, Journals, Shopping Lists, Packing Lists,
Addresses, Recipes.
Public writing: Letters of enquiry, complain, request, Form filling,
Applications (for membership).
Creative writing: Poems, Stories, Rhymes, Drama, Songs,
Autobiography
Social writing: Letters, Invitations, Notes, Cablegrams, Telephone
messages, Instructions to friends or family
Study writing: Making notes while reading, taking notes from lecturer,
making a card index, Summaries, Synopses, Reviews, Reports, Essays,
Bibliographies.
Institutional writing

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