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Listening, like playing chess, is a game of problem solving, evaluation,
critical thinking, intuition and forecasting. Every game is different and each
game is a challenge requiring listeners to unceasingly develop knowledge
and experience. It is a disciplined study and the repeated practice of many
techniques and skills that bring victory to the listener. Apart fro m basic
requirements of language mastery and culture sensitivity, quite a few skills
need acquiring for successful listening. One of them is note-taking skill.
Like learners elsewhere in the world, Vietnamese learners encounter
many difficulties in improving listening skill. During my English learning in
the university especially in the field of learning listening skill in 2
nd
year, I
myself found out that if Vietnamese can master listening skills, the English
listening problems will be overcame.
All the above reasons have inspired the writer to choose the subject ―A
study on techniques to improve note taking skill in listening class for 2
nd
English major student at Hai Phong Private University‖ to do research.

khoa_luan_a_study_on_techniques_to_improve_note_taking_skill_

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
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ISO 9001 : 2008
KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP
NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ
HẢI PHÒNG – 2012
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVERSITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
GRADUATION PAPER
A STUDY ON TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE NOTE TAKING SKILL IN
LISTENING CLASS FOR SECOND YEAR STUDENT OF ENGLISH
MAJOR AT HAI PHONG PRIVATE UNIVERSITY
By:
LE QUOC HAN
Class:
NA1201
Supervisor:
NGUYEN THI QUYNH HOA, M.A
HAI PHONG – 2012
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
Sinh viên: …………………………Mã số:……………………………………………..
Lớp: ………………………. .Ngành:………………………………………………
Tên đề tài: ……………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………..
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp
( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
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2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
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3. Địa điểm thực tập.

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CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày.. tháng năm 20
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày tháng năm 20.
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày. Tháng.. năm 20.
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt nghiệp:
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2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra
trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán giá trị
sử dụng, chất lượng các bản vẽ)
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3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn :
(ghi bằng cả số và chữ)
Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. năm 20
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký)
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài
liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………. tháng……… năm 20
Người chấm phản biện
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I: INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………. 8
1. RATIONALE ……………………………………………………………………………… 12
2. AIMS OF THE STUDY …………………………………………………………………. 12
3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS ……………………………………………………………… 12
4. SCOPE OF THE STUDY ……………………………………………………………….. 12
5. METHODS OF THE STUDY ………………………………………………………….. 12
6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY …………………………………………………….. 13
7. DESIGN OF THE STUDY …………………………………………………………….. 13
CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND …………………………… 14
1. Listening …………………………………………………………………………………. 14
1.1. Definition of Listening …………………………………………………………… 14
1.2. Classification of listening ………………………………………………………. 15
2. The Role of Note Taking Skill in Listening ………………………………….. 18
3. What to Note ……………………………………………………………………………. 19
3.1. Main Ideas ……………………………………………………………………………. 19
3.2. The Links …………………………………………………………………………….. 20
3.3. Non contextualized Information ……………………………………………. 20
3.4. Verb Tenses ………………………………………………………………………….. 20
3.5. How to Note ………………………………………………………………………….. 21
3.5.1. Abbreviations and Symbols …………………………………………………. 21
3.5.1.1. Abbreviations ………………………………………………………………….. 21
3.5.1.2 Symbols …………………………………………………………………………… 25
3.6. Note Arrangement …………………………………………………………………. 27
3.6.1. Diagonal Layout …………………………………………………………………. 27
3.6.2. Left-hand Margin ……………………………………………………………….. 28
3.7. Which Language Used In Notes ………………………………………………. 29
3.8. When to Note ………………………………………………………………………… 30
CHAPTER II: METHODS AND PROCEDURES ……………………… 32
1. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………. 32
2. THE OBJECTIVE OF THE SURVEY ………………………………………………….. 32
3. SUBJECTS …………………………………………………………………………………. 32
4. METHODOLOGY AND METHOD OF THE SURVEY ……………………………… 32
4.1. Methodology …………………………………………………………………………. 32
4.2. Method …………………………………………………………………………………. 33
5. PROCEDURES ……………………………………………………………………………. 33
CHAPTER 3: DATA ANALYSIS ………………………………………………. 33
1. ANALYZING FROM THE STUDENTS’ SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ……………… 33
1.1. Years of studying English ……………………………………………………….. 33
1.2. Students’ Attitude toward Listening Skill …………………………………. 34
1.3. Students’ attitude toward how listening important to them ………… 34
1.4. Students’ Time Allocation for Self-Study …………………………………… 35
1.5. Students using abbreviation and symbols instead of writing all
in words ……………………………………………………………………………………… 35
1.6. Students Using Diagrams in Their Notes …………………………………. 36
1.7. Students’ Opinion about Rewrite Their Notes. ………………………….. 37
1.8. Student’s Opinions on the Materials Supplied By the Teachers ……. 38
2. ANALYZING FROM THE TEACHERS’ SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE …………….. 38
2.1. Teachers’ Opinions on Students’ Competence during Their
First Two Years in the University. ………………………………………………….. 39
2.2. Teachers’ Opinions on Students’ Common Difficulties in note
taking skill in listening class. ………………………………………………………….. 39
2.3. Teachers’ Opinions on the Materials Supplying To the Students ….. 41
2.4. Teachers’ opinions on the ways to help students improve their note
taking skill in listening class. …………………………………………………………… 41
2.5. Teachers’ suggestions to the students to enhance their listening
competence. ………………………………………………………………………………… 41
PART III: CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………. 43
1. CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………………………. 43
2. SOME SUGGESTED TECHNIQUES …………………………………………………… 44
2.1. USE SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS …………………………………………… 44
2.2. USE CONCEPT MAPS AND DIAGRAMS …………………………………………. 45
2.3. TAKING NOTES IN CLASS: A BRIEF SUMMARY ……………………………… 48
2.3.1. Before the Lecture Begins ……………………………………………………. 50
2.3.2. During the Lecture ……………………………………………………………… 50
2.3.3. After the Lecture …………………………………………………………………. 51
2.4. OTHER SUGGESTED TECHNIQUES ON TAKING NOTES …….. 51
2.4.1. The 2-6 ……………………………………………………………………………… 52
2.4.2. Split Page Method ………………………………………………………………. 52
2.4.3. Using Group Notes……………………………………………………………… 52
2.4.4. Secrets to Taking Better Notes …………………………………………….. 52
2.4.5. Noteworthy Notes ………………………………………………………………. 53
2.4.6. Attend Class ………………………………………………………………………. 53
2.4.7. Prepare for the lecture …………………………………………………………. 54
2.4.8. Use Colors …………………………………………………………………………. 54
3. Suggestions for Further Study …………………………………………………… 56
REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………….. 57
APPENDIX ……………………………………………………………………………….. 57
STUDENTS’SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ……………………………….. 58
APPENDIX ……………………………………………………………………………….. 61
TEACHERS’ SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ……………………………… 61
PART I: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
Listening, like playing chess, is a game of problem solving, evaluation,
critical thinking, intuition and forecasting. Every game is different and each
game is a challenge requiring listeners to unceasingly develop knowledge
and experience. It is a disciplined study and the repeated practice of many
techniques and skills that bring victory to the listener. Apart from basic
requirements of language mastery and culture sensitivity, quite a few skills
need acquiring for successful listening. One of them is note-taking skill.
Like learners elsewhere in the world, Vietnamese learners encounter
many difficulties in improving listening skill. During my English learning in
the university especially in the field of learning listening skill in 2
nd
year, I
myself found out that if Vietnamese can master listening skills, the English
listening problems will be overcame.
All the above reasons have inspired the writer to choose the subject ―A
study on techniques to improve note taking skill in listening class for 2
nd
English major student at Hai Phong Private University‖ to do research.
2. Aims of the Study
The study has purposes as follows:
– To find out the difficulties encountered by 2
nd
year English majors in
improving note taking skill in listening class.
– To suggest some techniques to improve 2
nd
year English majors’ note
taking skill.
3. Research Questions
The study is conducted to answer the following questions:
* What difficulties do HPU 2
nd
year English majors face in note taking in
listening?
* What methods should be used to help HPU English major students
overcome their difficulties?
4. Scope of the Study
English listening is a big theme; however, because of the limited time
and my knowledge, in this paper, the writer only focuses on note taking skill
problems in listening faced by Vietnamese and some techniques for teaching
English to solve these problems. The study limits itself at finding out the
difficulties in learning listening skill of second year English majors.
Moreover, the researcher concentrates on improving note taking skill in
listening class accessed in the view of both students and lecturers.
5. Methods of the Study
The following methods are employed to collect data for the study:
Quantities method (The survey questionnaires were designed with the participants
of English teachers and major students at Hai Phong Private University.
Direct observation and conversation
The major source of data for the study was students’ survey questionnaire
respondents while direct observation and conversation applied with an aim
to get more information for any confirmation of the findings.
6. Significance of the Study
Although note taking has been one of the most common skills in
listening, there are few studies on listening problems and factors affecting
listening ability. This study is designed to investigate the 2
nd
year English
major students’ difficulties and causes of those difficulties especially it is
done by a HPU student of English so it can be more subjective and
appropriate to the ELT situations in HPU.
7. Design of the Study
The study is divided into three parts:
Part I: Introduction presents the rationales, aims, research questions, scope,
method and design of the study.
Part II: Development consists of three chapters
Chapter 1: REVIEW OF LITERATURE – deals with the concepts including
listening and note taking skill in listening class, types of listening, and the
roles of note taking skill in listening class.
Chapter 2: METHODS AND PROCEDURES – gives the situation
analysis, subjects, and data collection instruments.
Chapter 3: DATA ANALYSIS – shows the results of the survey and a
comprehensive analysis on the data collected.
Part III: Conclusion presenting an overview of the study, suggestions for
further research and limitations of the study.
PART II: DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
1. Listening
1.1. Definition of Listening
Listening is considered as one of the most important parts of the oral
communication. The term is used in order to make oral communication
effective. There was an idea that ―Students spend 20 percent of all school
related hours just listening. If television watching and one-half of
conversations are included, students spend approximately 50 percent of their
waking hours just listening. For those hours spent in the classroom, the
amount of listening time can be almost 100 percent.‖ Obviously, it is
believed that listening is a significant and essential area of development in a
native language and in a second language; therefore, there have been
numerous definitions of listening and listening skill.
According to Howatt and Dakin (1974), listening is ability to identify
and understand what others are saying. This process involves understanding
a speaker’s accent and pronunciation, the speaker’s grammar and vocabulary
and comprehension of meaning. An able listener is capable of doing these
four things simultaneously.
In addition, Lesley Barker (2001) states that: ―Listening, however, is
more than just being able to hear and understand what someone else says,
listening skills involve etiquette, asking for clarification, showing empathy
and providing an appropriate response.‖
According to Bulletin (1952), listening is one of the fundamental
language skills. It’s a medium through which children, young people and
adults gain a large portion of their education-their information, their
understanding of the world and of human affairs, their ideals, sense of
values, and their appreciation.
Rubin (1995) conceived listening as an active process in which a listener
selects and interprets information, which comes from auditory and visual clues
in order to define what is going on and what the speakers are trying to express.
Purdy (1991) defined listening as ―the active and dynamic process of
attending, perceiving, listening, remembering and responding to the
expressed verbal and non-verbal needs, concerns and information offered by
the human beings‖. Carol (1993) described listening as a set of activities that
involve ―the individual’s capacity to apprehend, recognize, discriminate or
even ignore‖. Wolvin and Coakley (1985) points out that listening is ―the
process of receiving, attending to and assigning meaning to aural stimuli‖.
This definition suggests that listening is a complex, problem-solving skill.
The task of listening is more than perception of sound. This view of listening
is in accordance with second-language theory which considers listening to
spoken language as an active and complex process in which listeners focus
on selected aspects of aural input, construct meaning, and relate what they
hear to existing knowledge (O’Malley & Chamot, 1989; Byrnes, 1984;
Richards, 1985; Holand, 1983).Recently, Imhof (1998) stated that listening
is ―the active process of selecting and integrating relevant information from
acoustic input and this process is controlled by personal intentions which are
critical to listening‖. Rost (2002) confirmed, ―Listening is experiencing
contextual effects‖ which can be translated as ―listening as a neurological
event (experiencing) overlaying a cognitive event creating a change in a
representation‖, etc
1.2. Classification of listening
Almost the learners of English will sooner or later, find themselves in a
variety of situation where they need or want to listen to English being used
in the real-life for arrange of purposes. However, they have to face many
difficulties because there is the big difference between the listening activities
in the classroom and actual situations. In the class, the learners listened to
the very grammatical standard dialogues, conversations or presentations. The
speakers often speak at perfectly controlled speed, with perfect voice tone,
accent and correct grammar. The learners even had the preparation already
and knew clearly about the topic that they are going to listen to.
That is the reason why the learners can listen very well. Whereas, in
the real-life conversations, learners encounter various people speak with
different accent, speed and voice tone without paying attention to grammar.
The speakers also can use the difficult words, idioms, proverbs, or even the
slang words, etc. As a result, the learners cannot listen to perfectly.
In the real-life, different situations call for different types of listening,
and

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