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First of all, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Ms.
Nguyen Thi Quynh Hoa for her generous assistance, enthusiastic guidance
and constructive supervision throughout my thesis. Without her help, this
graduation paper would not have been completed.
I also wish to acknowledge indebtedness to all the teachers at Faculty of
Foreign Languages, HPU for their valuable lectures and instructions during
the past years, which has helped me much in completing the final task.
I am grateful to HPU 2
nd
year English majors and all the English teachers for
their enthusiastic participation in completing my survey questionnaires.

khoa_luan_some_obstacles_facing_hpu_2_nd_year_english_majors

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1
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
——————————-
ISO 9001 : 2008
KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP
NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ
HẢI PHÒNG – 2012
2
HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
———————————–
GRADUATION PAPER
SOME OBSTACLES FACING HPU 2
ND
YEAR
ENGLISH MAJORS IN ENGLISH LISTENING
COMPREHENSION AND SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS
By:
Vu Thi Thu Trang
Class:
NA1202
Supervisor:
Nguyen Thi Quynh Hoa, (M.A.)
HAI PHONG – 2012
3
BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO
TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG
————————————–
NhiÖm vô ®Ò tµi tèt nghiÖp
Sinh viên: ……………………………………………………Mã
số:……………………….
Lớp:
………………………..Ngành:…………………………………………………………..
Tên đề tài:
…………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
….
4
Nhiệm vụ đề tài
1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt
nghiệp
( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ).
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán.
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp.
..
..
..
5
CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI
Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Người hướng dẫn thứ hai:
Họ và tên:…………………………………………………………………………………
Học hàm, học vị:………………………………………………………………………..
Cơ quan công tác:………………………………………………………………………
Nội dung hướng dẫn:………………………………………………………………….
Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày tháng năm 2012
Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày tháng năm 2012
Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN
Sinh viên Người hướng dẫn
Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2012
HIỆU TRƯỞNG
GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị
6
PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN
1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt
nghiệp:
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra
trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số
liệu):
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ):
..
..
..
Hải Phòng, ngày .. tháng .. năm 2012
Cán bộ hướng dẫn
(họ tên và chữ ký)
7
NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ
CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP
1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài
liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài.
2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện :
(Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ)
Ngày………. tháng……… năm 2012
Người chấm phản biện
8
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First of all, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Ms.
Nguyen Thi Quynh Hoa for her generous assistance, enthusiastic guidance
and constructive supervision throughout my thesis. Without her help, this
graduation paper would not have been completed.
I also wish to acknowledge indebtedness to all the teachers at Faculty of
Foreign Languages, HPU for their valuable lectures and instructions during
the past years, which has helped me much in completing the final task.
I am grateful to HPU 2
nd
year English majors and all the English teachers for
their enthusiastic participation in completing my survey questionnaires.
Finally yet importantly, I would like to thank my family members who
always stand by my side while the work was in process.
Haiphong, July 2012
Student
Vu Thi Thu Trang
9
10
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgements
Table of contents
Lists of figures and tables
PART I: INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………… 1
1. Rationale ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
2. Aims of the study ……………………………………………………………………………… 1
3. Research questions ……………………………………………………………………………. 2
4. The significance of the study ……………………………………………………………… 2
5. Scope of the study …………………………………………………………………………….. 2
6. Methods of the study …………………………………………………………………………. 2
7. Design of the study ……………………………………………………………………………. 3
PART II: DEVELOPMENT ……………………………………………………………….. 4
CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ………………………………. 4
1. LISTENING …………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
1.1. Definition of listening …………………………………………………………………….. 4
1.2 Classification of listening …………………………………………………………………. 6
2. LISTENING COMPREHENSION ……………………………………………………. 10
2.1 Defining listening comprehension …………………………………………………… 10
2.2. Listening comprehension process …………………………………………………… 13
2.3. The stages in listening comprehension ……………………………………………. 15
3. POTENTIAL DIFFICULTIES IN LISTENING COMPREHENSION ….. 17
3.1. Listening problems ……………………………………………………………………….. 17
3.2. Language problems ………………………………………………………………………. 21
CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ………………………………… 23
2.1. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………….. 23
2.2. The setting of the study …………………………………………………………………. 23
2.2.1. Students and their background …………………………………………………….. 23
2.2.2. Resources and materials ……………………………………………………………… 24
2.3. The subjects …………………………………………………………………………………. 24
2.4. Instruments for collecting data ……………………………………………………….. 24
2.5. Data collection procedure ……………………………………………………………… 25
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CHAPTER 3: DATA ANALYSIS ……………………………………………………… 27
3.1. Analyzing from the students’ survey questionnaire…………………………… 27
3.1.1 Years of studying English(Q1) …………………………………………………….. 27
3.1.2 Students’ attitude toward listening skill (Q2&3) …………………………….. 28
3.1.3. Students’ time allocation for self-study (Q4) ………………………………….. 29
3.1.4.Students’ opinion about their self-collected materials exploited(Q7) ….. 30
3.1.5 Student’s perceptions about their listening difficulties (Q5) ………………. 31
3.1.6 Student’s opinions on the materials supplied by the teachers (Q6) ……… 33
Figure 8: Students opinions on the materials supplied by the teachers. ……….. 33
3.2. Analyzing from the teachers’ survey questionnaire ……………………………. 34
3.2.1. Teachers’ opinions on students’ competence during their first two years
in the university. …………………………………………………………………………………. 34
3.2.2 Teachers’ opinions on students’ common difficulties in listening lessons 35
3.2.3 Teachers’ opinions on the materials supplying to the students(Q3) ……. 37
3.2.4 Teachers’ opinions on the ways to help students improve their listening skill
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
3.2.5 Teachers’ suggestions to the students to enhance their listening
competence. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 38
CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS, DISCUSSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . 39
4.1. Findings and discussions ……………………………………………………………….. 39
4.2. Recommendations ………………………………………………………………………… 40
PART 3: CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………………….. 46
1. Overview of the study ……………………………………………………………………. 46
2. Limitations and suggestions for further study …………………………………… 47
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………. 48
APPENDIX ………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
APPENDIX ………………………………………………………………………………………. 53
12
LISTS OF FIGURES AND TABLES
List of figures
Figure 1: Listening comprehension process……………………………………………. 13
Figure 2: Information sources in listening comprehension ………………………. 14
Figure 3: Years of studying English ……………………………………………………… 27
Figure 4: Students’ attitude toward listening skill …………………………………….. 28
Figure 5: Students’ attitude toward how listening important to them ………… 28
Figure 6: Students’ time allocation for self-study. ……………………………………. 29
Figure 7: Students’ opinion about their self-collected materials exploited …… 30
Figure 8: Students opinions on the materials supplied by the teachers. ……….. 33
Figure 9: Teachers’ opinion on students’ listening competence …………………. 34
Figure 10: Teachers’ opinions on materials applying to the 2nd year English majors
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
List of Tables
Table 1: Students’ perceptions about their listening difficulties …………………. 31
Table 2: Teachers’ opinions on students’ common difficulties in listening
lessons ……………………………………………………………………………………… 35
PART I: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
Being good at communication in English particularly and in foreign languages
generally is the desire of all foreign language learners. However, it requires them
to speak and to listen well in which listening seems the most challenging task for
13
every student. In fact, there are many factors affecting the learners in listening
acquisition. Consequently, it is very difficult for them to master this skill.
Like students from different universities, the writer has faced many
difficulties in listening. With four – year experience in learning the skill and
from what her observed in practicing listening of other classmates, it can be
found that many students failed in practicing listening skill. Some of them
complained that they felt unconfident with listening tasks so they could hardly
understand the spoken messages.
All these above reasons have inspired the writer to do research on listening
skill and as a result, a research title goes as “Some obstacles facing HPU 2nd
year English majors in English listening comprehension and suggested
solutions”
2. Aims of the study
The study has two main purposes as follows:
* Finding out the difficulties encountered by 2
nd
year English majors in
listening comprehension.
* Giving solutions to these problems
14
3. Research questions
The study is conducted to answer the following questions:
* What difficulties do HPU 2
nd
year English majors face in listening
comprehension?
* What methods should be used to help HPU English major students
overcome their difficulties?
4. The significance of the study
Although listening has been one of the most common skills, there are few
studies on listening problems and factors affecting listening ability. The most
well known one is done by Boyle (1984) identifying and classifying factors
affecting listening comprehension. This thesis is designed to investigate
second year English major students’ obstacles and causes of those difficulties
especially it is done by a HPU student of English so it can be more subjective
and appropriate to the ELT situation in HPU.
5. Scope of the study
The study limits itself at finding out the difficulties in learning listening skill
of second year English majors. Moreover, the researcher concentrates on
studying linguistic problems (vocabulary, grammar, connected speech, stress
and intonation, accents, speech rate) and non – linguistic ones (skills,
psychology, environment, social and cultural knowledge) accessed in the
view of both students and lecturers.
6. Methods of the study
The following methods are employed to collect data for the study:
– Quantitive method (Two survey questionnaires were designed with the
participants of English teachers and major students at Hai Phong Private University.
– Direct observation and conversation
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The major source of data for the study was students’ survey questionnaire
respondents while direct observation and conversation applied with an aim to
get more information for any confirmation of the findings.
7. Design of the study
This study consists of three main parts: the introduction, the development and
the conclusion.
Part I: Introduction presents the rationales, aims, research questions,
significance, scope, method and design of the study.
Part II: Development is divided into 4 chapters:
Chapter 1: Theoretical background – deals with the concepts including
listening, types of listening, listening comprehension, listening
comprehension process, and potential difficulties in listening comprehension.
Chapter 2: Methodology – gives the situation analysis, subjects, and data
collection instruments.
Chapter 3: Data Analysis – shows the detailed results of the survey and a
comprehensive analysis on the data collected.
Chapter 4 – Findings, discussions and recommendations – refers to major findings,
discussions and offers some recommendations for improving students’ listening
comprehension.
Part III is the Conclusion presenting an overview of the study, suggestions for
further research and limitations of the study.
16
PART II: DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
1. LISTENING
1.1. Definition of listening
Listening is considered one of the most important parts of the oral
communication. The term is used in order to make oral communication
effective. There was an idea that “Students spend 20 percent of all school
related hours just listening. If television watching and one-half of
conversations are included, students spend approximately 50 percent of their
waking hours just listening. For those hours spent in the classroom, the
amount of listening time can be almost 100 percent.” Obviously, it is believed
that listening is a significant and essential area of development in a native
language and in a second language; therefore, there have been numerous
definitions of listening and listening skill.
According to Howatt and Dakin (1974), listening is ability to identify and
understand what others are saying. This process involves understanding a
speaker’s accent and pronunciation, the speaker’s grammar and vocabulary
and comprehension of meaning. An able listener is capable of doing these
four things simultaneously.
In addition, Lesley Barker (2001) states that: “Listening, however, is more
than just being able to hear and understand what someone else says, listening
skills involve etiquette, asking for clarification, showing empathy and
providing an appropriate response.”
According to Bulletin (1952), listening is one of the fundamental language
skills. It’s a
17
medium through which children, young people and adults gain a large portion
of their education-their information, their understanding of the world and of
human affairs, their ideals, sense of values, and their appreciation.
Rubin (1995) conceived listening as an active process in which a listener selects
and interprets information, which comes from auditory and visual clues in order
to define what is going on and what the speakers are trying to express.
Purdy (1991) defined listening as “the active and dynamic process of
attending, perceiving, interpreting, remembering and responding to the
expressed verbal and non-verbal needs, concerns and information offered by
the human beings”. Carol (1993) described listening as a set of activities that
involve “the individual’s capacity to apprehend, recognize, discriminate or
even ignore”.
Wolvin and Coakley (1985) points out that listening is “the process of
receiving, attending to and assigning meaning to aural stimuli”. This
definition suggests that listening is a complex, problem-solving skill. The task
of listening is more than perception of sound. This view of listening is in
accordance with second-language theory which considers listening to spoken
language as an active and complex process in which listeners focus on
selected aspects of aural input, construct meaning, and relate what they hear
to existing knowledge (O’Malley & Chamot, 1989; Byrnes, 1984; Richards,
1985; Holand, 1983).
Recently, Imhof (1998) stated that listening is “the active process of selecting
and integrating relevant information from acoustic input and this process is
controlled by personal intentions which is critical to listening”. Rost (2002)
confirmed, “Listening is experiencing contextual effects” which can be
translated as “listening as a neurological event (experiencing) overlaying a
cognitive event creating a change in a representation”, etc
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1.2 Classification of listening
Almost the learners of English will sooner or later, find themselves in a
variety of situation where they need or want to listen to English being used in
the real-life for arrange of purposes. However, they have to face many
difficulties because there is the big difference between the listening activities
in the classroom and actual situations. In the class, the learners listened to the
very grammatical standard dialogues, conversations or presentations. The
speakers often speak at perfectly controlled speed, with perfect voice tone,
accent and correct grammar. The learners even had the preparation already
and knew clearly about the topic that they are going to listen to.
That is the reason why the learners can listen very well. Whereas, in the r

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