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1. The necessity of the thesis
Over 30 years of renovation, our economy has gained many important
achievements. These achievements are partly determined by the economic growth
model of this period, which is in line with Vietnam’s conditions. Until now, Vietnam’s
economy has many signs of instability, the economy has been preserved for so long in
the “low value added” model, based on increased capital investment, exploitation of
natural resources, leverage cheap labor to pursue rapid growth. The economic growth
model in Vietnam is currently considered as spreading widely and ineffectively in the
long run, not really promoting the strengths and effectively exploiting the advantages
of the economy.
This shows that a fast-growing economy does not mean a strong economy. Hence,
Vietnam’s economic growth model for the period 2017-2020 with a vision to 2030 needs
to be transformed with the basic contents of: the combination of growth of width and
growth of depth, in which the growth in depth is the mainstream, combining economic
growth with social development and environmental protection.
In order to implement the new economic growth model, solutions should be
implemented synchronously, in which the development of human resources, especially
high quality human resources – important inputs of economic growth model – is
considered a “breakthrough”, decisive solution. Meanwhile, human resources in our
country are now in large numbers, but low in quality, not meeting the requirements of
socio-economic development and international integration.
Due to the above reasons, the PhD candidate selects the topic “Human resources
to innovate the model of economic growth in Vietnam” as the subject of his PhD thesis.

human resources for the reform of economic growth model in vietnam
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HO CHI MINH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF POLITICS
NGUYEN DUC HAI
HUMAN RESOURCES FOR THE REFORM OF
ECONOMIC GROWTH MODEL IN VIETNAM
SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL THESIS
FIELD OF STUDY: POLITICAL ECONOMY
Code: 62 31 01 02
HA NOI – 2017
The thesis was completed at
Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics
Supervisors: 1. Assoc. Prof., Dr. Doan Xuan Thuy
2. Prof., Dr. Chu Van Cap
Reviewer 1: ……………………………………………….
……………………………………………….
Reviewer 2: ……………………………………………….
……………………………………………….
Reviewer 3: ……………………………………………….
……………………………………………….
The thesis shall be defended in front of the Thesis Committee at
Academy level at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics
At…… hour……. date…… month…… year 20…
The thesis can be found at: The National Library and
The Library of Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politcs
1
INTRODUCTION
1. The necessity of the thesis
Over 30 years of renovation, our economy has gained many important
achievements. These achievements are partly determined by the economic growth
model of this period, which is in line with Vietnam’s conditions. Until now, Vietnam’s
economy has many signs of instability, the economy has been preserved for so long in
the “low value added” model, based on increased capital investment, exploitation of
natural resources, leverage cheap labor to pursue rapid growth. The economic growth
model in Vietnam is currently considered as spreading widely and ineffectively in the
long run, not really promoting the strengths and effectively exploiting the advantages
of the economy.
This shows that a fast-growing economy does not mean a strong economy. Hence,
Vietnam’s economic growth model for the period 2017-2020 with a vision to 2030 needs
to be transformed with the basic contents of: the combination of growth of width and
growth of depth, in which the growth in depth is the mainstream, combining economic
growth with social development and environmental protection.
In order to implement the new economic growth model, solutions should be
implemented synchronously, in which the development of human resources, especially
high quality human resources – important inputs of economic growth model – is
considered a “breakthrough”, decisive solution. Meanwhile, human resources in our
country are now in large numbers, but low in quality, not meeting the requirements of
socio-economic development and international integration.
Due to the above reasons, the PhD candidate selects the topic “Human resources
to innovate the model of economic growth in Vietnam” as the subject of his PhD thesis.
2. Research purposes and research tasks
2.1. Research purposes
Presenting the theoretical and practical issues of human resources to reform of the
economic growth model. Based on that, as performing assessment of the current state of
human resources – the inputs of the existing economic growth model in 2001-2016, the
thesis proposes some solutions for human resource development, focusing on improving
the quality of human resources for the renewal of the model of economic growth in
Vietnam during 2017-2020 with a vision to 2030.
2.2. Research tasks
Firstly, to systematize and analyze theoretical issues and practical experience on
human resources to reform the economic growth model.
Secondly, to objectively assess the current state of human resources – the input of
Vietnam’s economic growth model (2001-2016).
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Thirdly, to propose some comprehensive and synchronous solutions for the
development of human resources, especially high quality human resources for the
renewal of economic growth model in Vietnam during 2017-2020 and the vision
until 2030.
3. Research subjects and research scope
3.1. Research subjects
The thesis studies about human resources for the reform of the economic growth
model in Vietnam as a component of the economic growth model, one of the
development resources and the subject of the creation and implementation of the
economic growth model.
3.2. Research scope
– Regarding contents, the thesis focuses on researching:
+ The impact of human resources on economic growth model in two aspects:
firstly, human resources is a component of the economic growth model, acting as a
resource for development; secondly, the development of human resources is a decisive
condition for the implementation of the reform of the economic growth model.
+ The relationship between the reform of the economic growth model and the
development of human resources.
+ Proposing some macro-level solutions for human resource development to
reform the economic growth model for the period 2017-2020 with a vision to 2030.
– Regarding space: on the territory of Vietnam.
– Regarding time: to analyze and evaluate the actual situation of human resources
– the inputs of the current economic growth model from 2001 to 2016. Solutions to
develop human resources to reform the economic growth model studied during the
period of 2017-2020 with a vision to 2030.
4. Research approaches and research methodologies
4.1. Research approaches
In order to achieve the set objectives, the author uses the following approaches:
socio-economic; from theory to practice; accessing to human resources in a way that
motivates the growth paradigm and is a decisive resource for the reform of the economic
growth model.
4.2. Research methodologies
Based on the application of dialectical materialism and the materialist history of
Marxism-Leninism, the thesis uses the unique research methodology of political
economy of scientific abstraction, along with the specific methods, such as: analysis –
synthesis; interpretive – inductive; incorporating logic with history; collecting and
processing secondary information; summarize the results and inherit the results of
research from other works related to the topic.
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5. The new contributions of the thesis
1. The thesis affirms that human resources are one of the inputs of economic
growth model, and at the same time, the subject that exploits and effectively uses other
factors (capital, technology, institutions…). Human resources create and implement
economic growth model, in which high quality human resources play a decisive role in
renewing the model of economic growth.
2. The experiences of Japan, Korea and Singapore have been successfully
transformed from growth model of width to growth model of depth in a timely and
effective manner, is based on training and development of high quality human resources,
improving the quality of education – training and national technological level.
3. The thesis argues that Vietnam has advantages and opportunities of an
abundant labor force, low cost (compared to China), but the quality of human resources
does not meet the demand and in the next few decades, there will be no “golden
population structure”. Therefore, it is necessary to have policies and solutions to develop
human resources effectively, in the long run, to attach importance to quality over
quantity, to attach importance to vocational training and the development of high quality
human resources in close association with development of science, technology and
requirements of the economic sectors.
4. Groups of solutions for developing human resources for the reform of the
economic growth model in Vietnam in 2017-2020 and vision to 2030 are
comprehensive and feasible. In particular, the solution to use policies, treatments and
promote a number of human resources with specific “characteristics”, such as: human
resources in the State payroll (cadres, civil servants), the youth workforce from 15 to
24 years old and high quality human resources including leaders, managers at all levels
in the Party, the State, senior business executives, good businessmen, scientific and
technological leaders, intellectuals in the country and overseas Vietnamese
intellectuals, skilled workers.
6. Structure of thesis
Apart from the introduction, conclusion and reference list, the thesis is divided
into 4 chapters, 9 sections.
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Chapter 1
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH SITUATION RELATING TO THE THESIS
1.1. RESEARCHES ON HUMAN RESOURCES AND MODELS OF
ECONOMIC GROWTH
The dissertation reviews the research situation of authors at home and abroad
according to 2 groups of issues:
1.1.1. Studies of human resources and human resource development
Researches on human resources, human capital of Adam Smith (1776), Bardhan
and Udry (1999), Gary Becker of the University of Chicago; on human resources from
the perspective of the United Nations (UN), the International Labor Organization (ILO),
the World Bank (WB), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP); on human
resrouces development and human development of Marx and F. Engels, UNDP,
UNESCO, ILO… concerning requirements of growth model for human resources, there
is study by Michael Boozer (2003) about the path to success: Paths to success: The
Relationship between Human Development and Economic Growth; A study by Gustav
Ranis and Frances Stewart (2005) on the Dynamic links between economy and human
development.
Typical researches in the country on human resources and human capital of
Nguyen Binh Duc, Chu Van Cap, Phi Manh Hong; on human resources of Nguyen
Minh Hac, Nguyen Sinh Cuc, Mac Van Tien; on the role of human resources, especially
high quality human resources in the field of economic growth and development,
including some valuable experiences of some countries that can be applied to Vietnam,
such as Vu Van Phuc and Chu Van Cap (2012)., Vu Van Hoa (2013), Luu Duc Hai
(2015), Ha Thi Hang (2014), Tran Van Tung (2005), Tran Tho Dat (2008 and 2010)… In
general, all researches put great importance to the element of human resources in the
economic growth model and emphasize the positive and decisive nature of human
resource development for the country’s socio-economic development strategy.
1.1.2. Studies on growth models
Historically, many foreign authors have studied economic growth with classic
theories, such as the classical model of Adam Smith and David Ricardo; the Harrod-
Domar model of the Keynesian school; Newtonian model (modeled by Solow and
Swan, 1956); endogenous growth model; Lewis’s binary model supplemented by
Oshima; growth model of “balanced” and “extreme” growth; The model of “flying
saucers”… The practice in each country in each historical period poses the need for
appropriate theoretical hypotheses to promote growth and productivity.
In the country, the researches on growth models is quite diverse. Regarding the
thesis, the author synthesized into three groups: firstly, analyzing and evaluating the
current status of the growth model and quality of Vietnam’s economic growth during the
years 2001-2016; Secondly, to assess the actual status of human resources (inputs) of
growth models as a motivator for development; Thirdly, researches on economic growth
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model innovation. Representatives of the above studies include Tran Tho Dat, Nguyen
Ke Tuan, Nguyen Dinh Huong, Ha Van Hien, Pham Hong Chuong from National
Economics University, Le Xuan Ba (CIEM), Chu Van Cap and partners, Dao Duy
Huan, Nguyen Sinh Cuc, Nguyen Van Hau, Tran Chi Trung… The researches also
mentioned the solutions to implement the new economic growth model, which
emphasizes the solution to develop human resources, especially high quality human
resources – the input element contributing to the growth of the economy.
1.2. RESULTS DRAWN FROM SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES MENTIONED
ABOVE AND THE GAP NEEDS FURTHER STUDYING
1.2.1. The results drawn
1.2.1.1. The role of human and human resources
In any age, human resources are the most important component of social
production. Human resources are considered as “endogenous” resources that dominate
the socio-economic development process and it has the distinct advantage that there is no
“limit” if properly fostered and exploited. Human resources are the most important
factor, determining the power of the nation.
1.2.1.2. Human resources development and its role
The development of human resources, especially the high quality human
resources, will create an important driving force for rapid and sustainable economic
growth. There are many factors influencing human resource development… in which
development of education – training and vocational training system is the basic way to
develop human resources.
1.2.1.3. Experiences to develop human resource and high quality human
resource to meet the development requirements of Japan, Korea, Singapore, China and
Taiwan are to create and provide vocational training; strongly link training with using
human resources.
1.2.1.4. Theory of economic growth model
Economic growth model is the most basic expression of the economic growth and
the factors that affect the economic growth. Classification by time (history) includes
classic, new-classic and modern economic growth model; by business approach includes
import substitution and export oriented growth models; In terms of the use of inputs
there are growth models in width and growth model in depth.
Concerning the structure of growth models, there are: dynamics of growth
(consumption, investment, public expenditure and net exports); inputs (capital, labor,
resources, technology); and the role of the State in the economy.
1.2.1.5. The role of human resources in economic growth
The study of economic growth of countries around the world and theories of
economic growth have shown that human resources are considered the most important
factor. A country that wants rapid, sustainable economic growth requires high quality
human resources together with factors of capital, technology and resources.
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1.2.1.6. Studies on the current state of human resources to meet the needs of the
economic growth model in Vietnam in the 2001-2016 period, the studies share the
common perception that Vietnam has advantages and opportunities for abundant labor
force at low cost (compared to China), but the low quality of human resources has
affected the quality of growth and competitiveness of the economy, which is one of the
three major bottlenecks of socio-economic development.
1.2.1.7. Studies on the reform of the economic growth model to 2020, with a
vision to 2030 in Vietnam, all studies show the need for reform of the economic growth
model, rooted in internal and external factors. Hence, reform of economic growth model
is to combine growth in width with in-depth growth, and growth in depth is the
mainstream. Human resources for the reform of the economic growth model must have a
long-term vision, with high quality rather than quantity, meeting the requirements of the
economy.
1.2.2. The “gap” – issues need further studying and research direction of
the thesis
1.2.2.1. The “gaps” of previous studies
(1) There has been no comprehensive and systematic study under the perspective
of political economy on human resources for the reform of economic growth model,
especially the characteristics, roles and factors affecting human resources to innovate the
economic growth model.
(2) The requirements of economic growth model reform for human resources and
the role of the State in ensuring these requirements.
(3) There are few comprehensive assessments on the human resources situation –
the input of the economic growth model in Vietnam over the last 30 years.
(4) Accordingly, there is a lack of research on the system of solutions for human
resource development to reform the economic growth model in Vietnam in the period of
2017-2020 with a vision to 2030.
1.2.2.2. Research direction of the thesis
(1) To clarify some theoretical issues and practical experience on human
resources to reform the economic growth model; The requirements of the reform of the
economic growht model for human development.
(2) To assess the human resource situation of Vietnam – the input of economic
growth model in the last 30 years; focus on analyzing of human resources status in
the existing economic growth model for the period 2001-2016, from which the results
and limitations of human resources together with the causes of such limitations are
presented.
(3) What are the requirements for human resources to reform the economic
growth model in Vietnam in the period 2017-2020? and what are the solutions to the
development of human resources of the new economic growth model?
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Chapter 2
THEORETICAL BASIS AND INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES
ON HUMAN RESOURCES IN INNOVATING THE
ECONOMIC GROWTH MODEL
2.1. THEORETICAL ISSUES CONCERNING THE ECONOMIC GROWTH
MODEL AND HUMAN RESOURCES OF THE ECONOMIC GROWTH MODEL
2.1.1. Theory of economic growth model
2.1.1.1. Concept of economic growth model
The model of economic growth is the basic expression of economic growth
theory, the determinants of growth of an economy or a country, and the factors that
affect economic growth in the relationship with factors of political, cultural, social and
environmental conditions.
Countries with different characteristics should have differences in growth models.
Depending on the angle of study, they are classified into different types of economic
growth models. The dissertation studies general growth models both in width and in
depth, consisting of three basic elements: capital, labor, technological progress, and at
the same time considering the combination of two types of growth models.
2.1.1.2. Elements of the economic growth model
– Overall, the structure of growth model includes: (i) dynamics of growth
(consumption, investment, public expenditure and net exports); (ii) input factors for
growth (capital, labor, resources and technology); (iii) management mechanism
embodied in the institution and role of the State in the economy.
– Factors influencing a country’s economic growth model:
Firstly, economic factors: physical capital, labor capital (raw labor and human
capital); technological advances and other economic factors, such as foreign direct
investment (FDI), international trade, the State and public spending, the structure of the
economy, the role of state-owned businesses.
Secondly, non-economic factors: socio-cultural factors, socio-economic institutions…
Unlike economic factors, non-economic factors have an indirect impact on
economic growth and it is difficult to quantify the extent to which they affect
economic growth.
Thus, it can be seen that human resources or labor resources are one of the inputs
of the economic growth model, playing a role in driving economic growth and
implementing reform of the economic growth model.
2.1.1.3. Classification of economic growth models
The dissertation classifies economic growth models in three aspects:
– According to the contribution of growth models’ inputs: growht model in width
and growth model in depth.
– Historical appearance: Classic, New-classic and modern growth models.
– According to the trade approach: growth models basing on the choice of
alternative industrialization of import, and growth model basing on the selection of the
export-oriented industrialization strategy.
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2.1.2. Human resources – inputs of the model of economic growth
Human resources, human capital, and human are elements of economic growth
model of a country or an economy through its developmental stages.
2.1.2.1. Perspectives on human capital and human resources
– Hu

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